Slavery, or Cham

Brother Joseph Mobberly S.J. (circa 1818)


Can a man serve God faithfully & possess slaves? Yes, but in this case salvation is difficult. And, Is it then lawful to keep men in servitude? Yes. I know there is at this time a prevailing opinion in the U. States, "that all men are free; that God never made one man to serve another; that it is against the divine [p2] law to possess slaves, and that it is much more criminal to sell them." This opinion is nothing less than a compound of Presbyterianism, Baptis[sic]m, Quakerism and Methodism. It is a brother to the great protestant principle that arose out of the pretended Reformation of England: viz. "Every man has a right to read and interpret the Scriptures & consequently, to form his Religion on them according to his own notion. Why should he be restrained by Pope or Church? Is he not free? Yes, all men are free." They who support this principle of freedom are great Scripturists. They are very learned, and few there are besides themselves, that know any thing. After deep research, they have discovered an easy method of attaining [p3] salvation: that different men have different Constitutions- therefore different dispositions & inclinations- therefore they can entertain different opinions- therefore they can teach different doctrines and adopt different systems: and tho' these systems and doctrines are contradictory, provided we all aim at the same great object, Heaven, we shall infallibly be saved. It is no matter what a man believes, provided he live up to his faith, and be a good man. The Church of God has many systems [p4] but she embraces all her Children because they all mean well, and tend to the same point. Luther's blessed Reformation has enlightened the world-- The dark ages are past-- This is the englightened age! The Fathers of the Church, tho' learned, had their ideas darkened by the shades of superstition-- they were fond of the marvellous-- they have related many wonderful things which they call miracles-- but we hold with no miracles since the days of the Apostles. We have Moses and the Prophets, (Luc. 16.29) and we believe as much of what they have said as we know is reasonable-- beyond what seems reasonable to us, we will not be[p5]lieve, if one shall rise from the dead.

Such is the faith that has grown out of Luther's Reformation. With good reason did our Saviour ask the question: "Verumtamen filius hominus veniens putas, inveniet fidem in terra?" (Luc. 18.8). But the Children of the Reformation set no bounds to their zeal. Not content with having refromed the spiritual world, they wish to meliorate the temporal condition of the human race. Having discovered that all men are free, they urge the right that all men have of being the free-born sons of God-- They insist on the autho[p6]rity of St. Paul. It is no matter what St. Paul means: his words must and shall mean what they would have them to mean: nor is the opinion of St. Peter of much weight with them: "Sicut et in omnibus, epsitolis loquens in iis delus: in quibus sunt quaedam difficilia intellectu, quae indocti e instabiles depravant, sicut et caeteras scripturas ad suam ipsorum perditionem." (2. Peter 3.16). They can say, it may be, that St. Peter was doting when he wrote the above sentence-- besides, he did not live in the enlightened age.

[p7] For my part I cannot agree with these blessed Reformers. I am fond of the dark ages, because I find many good things in them, and nothing bad, except what is the offspring of Heresy and the passions of depraved men. I like old systems, old doctrines & good old morality. I love the Mother Church, because she is always the same--she is built upon a rock (1) "Et ego dico tibi, quia tu es Petrus, & super hanc Petram aedificabo Ecclesiam meam, & portae inferi non praevalebunt adverseus eam." Matt. 16.18 which rock is supported by the words of eternal truth. God cannot deceive us--but were he to permit this Church to err, he would then deceive us--but being [p8] God, he cannot deceive us--therefore his Church cannot err. - I conceive a Church to be a certain manner or mode of worship prescribed by the Almighty, and according to which he will have his Creatures to serve him. On examination we find that he himself has always prescribed this mode of serving him, and has never left it to men to prescribe for him. (Gen. 2.7) Thus he himself forbade Adam to eat of the fruit: (Gen. 7.10) he himself prescribed circumcision: (Exod. 20.14) he gave the lawe in thunder and lightening on Mount Sinai: (Matt. 1.) & finally, he sent his only begotten son into the world to prescribe & establish the lawofgrace. - The voice of all nature declares there is a God. It was consistent with divine Wisdom that some system or Church should be established, according to which, this God was to be served by his Creatures. This Church being once established & continued by the agency of men who are assisted by the H. Ghost, (2). "Cum autem venerit ille spiritus veritatis, docebit vos omnem veritatem. (Jn.16.13.) "no Creature has a right to reform it, because no Creature has a right to reform God's work. The Church herself has often taken measures to reform the morals of men, but she never has assumed the right of changing the work of God. It was only Martin Luther aided by the depraved passions of [p10] the human heart, that was bold enough to undertake so monstrous a task! His errors gained ground & the world has been poisoned by his wicked folly. His vices have been imitated, and rising generations have been carried away in the deluge of vice & immortality. England by her pretended Reformation, taught her subjects to rebel, & she has since lost her fair America, the brightest jewel that ever graced the British crown. The Cortes (or Free Masons) of Spain, commenced a Revolution in South America a few years ago; since in Spain & Italy: and these move on the same principle that was formerly hatched in the brain of Martin Luther.

"But Presbyterians, Baptists, Quakers & Methodists have discovered a nother principle of universal freedom. (3) They will have no slaves -- they have just found out some where (but where they know not themselves) that slavery is quite unauthorised by scripture. As they have so great a taste for Scripture, it will be well here to offer them a scriptural repast.

In the book of Genesis, (Gen. 9: 24 ad 28.) we read: "Evigilans autem Noe ex vino, cum vidisset quae feceret ei filius suus minor ait: Maledictus Chanaan, servus servorum erit fratribus suis: dixitque: Benedictus Dominus Deus Sem, sit Chanaan servus ejus. Dilatet Deus Japheth et habitet in tabernaculis Sem, [p12] sitque Chanaan servius ejus." It seems that from this period slavery commenced. The great St. Ambrose observes (Corn. a Sap. in Gen. c. 9 v. 25.) "that before the invention of wine, Liberty remained unshaken to all: that no one knew the duties of Servitude; and that even at the present day there would be no slavery, if intoxication had never existed." It is confidently asserted and even proved by some authors, that Cham or Chanaan, or their descendants settled in Africa, and that the present Africans are their descendants. The following passage deserves notice. "That the Savage nations of Africa were at any period of history exempted from this opprobrium of our nature, which [p13] spread over all the rest of the world the enlightened reader will not suppose. It is indeed in that vast country that slavery has in every age appeared in its ugliest form." Encyc. or Dict. of Arts & Sciences, vol. 12. p. 526.

"Abram vero bene usi sunt propter illam: fuerunt ei oves & boves, et asini, et servi & famuli, & asinae & cameli." (5). Here we find that servants were to Abraham, that is, they belonged to him, & were his property: therefore they were his slaves. But Abraham had God for his particular friend; and we do not read that God ever reproached him for keeping men in Servitude. Therefore it was lawful for him to possess them.

"Statimque de nocte consurgens [p14] Abirmelech, vocavit omnes servos suos. Tulit igitu Abimelech oves & boves, et servos et ancillas, & dedit Abraham." (6). We find it possitively[sic] asserted that Abrimelech gave Abraham men-servants & maid-servants. But he could not have given them, had they not been his property.

"Praecepitque servis suis et foderent puteum." We may observe that Abraham did not request his servants, but commanded them to dig the well (7).

"Ditatusq'est homo supra modum, et habuit greges multos, ancillas & servos, camelos & asinos." Abraham was enriched above measure. We can not say that a man is enriched above measure by property that does not belong to him. But he was enriched because he had many servants; & the sacred text makes no distinction between the servants [p15] and the cattle - hence we may reasonably infer that his servants were slaves. (8)

"Habeo boves et asinos, et oves et servos, & ancillas."(9). Here Jacob informs us that he had men-servants & maid-servants.

"Si emeris servum Hebraeeum, se annis serviet tibi: in septimo egredietur libergratis ...... quod si dixerit-servus: diligo Dominum meum et uxorem & liberos, non egredar liber: offereteum Dominus Diis, & applicabitur ad ostum & postes perforabit aurem ejus subula, & erit ei servus in saeulum. Si quis vendiderit iliam suam in famulam, non egredietur sicut ancillae exvie consueverunt."(9a) But the daugher is not to go out as a bond-woman; that is, she shall be a servant for a time, under certain circumstances & conditions, but not as a bond-woman, who is a servant for life.

"Qui percusserit servum suum vel ancillam virga & mortui fuerunt in manileus ejis, crimine reue erit." (9b) This passage we acknowledges the right which a master has to whip & chastise hsi servants, which tight is more strongly indicated in the following passage.

"Sin autem uno die vel duobus supervixerilimon subjacebit paenae, quia pecunia illius est." (9c) It is here asserted that the servant is as much the master's property as his money [p17] is. But he can hold his money for life if he choose. Therefore he can also possess the slave in perpetuum.

"Sed erunt vobis in cibum, tibi & servo tuo ancillae & mercenario tus & advenae qui peregrinantur apudte.." (9d) A distinction is made here between the servant and the hired servant, because the hired servant and the hired servant, because the hired servant is a servant only for a time but the other is a servant for life.

"Si perusserit quispiane oculum servi sui aut ancilloe et luscos eus fecerit dimittet eos liberos pro oculo quem eruit." (9e) We see here, that tho' a master has such absolute authority over his slaves, that it is in his power even to abuse and injure them, yet he is bound under all circumstances to do them strict justice.

"Servus et ancilla sint vobis de nationibus, quae in circuitu vestro sunt." (9f) We see in this text that the Israelites had permission from God to take slaves from the neighbouring nations, which were of the [p18] wicked race of Cham or Chanaan.

"Cibaria, & virga, & onus asino: panis & disciplina & opus servo. Operatu in disciplina, & quaerit requiescere: laxa manus illi, & quaerit libertatem. Ingum & lorum curvant collum durum, & servum inclinant operationes assiduae. Servo malevole tortura & compedes; mitte illum in operationem ne vacet: multam enim multam docuit otiositas. In opera constitue eum sic enim condecet illum. Quod si non obaudierit, curva illum compedibus, & non amplifices super omnem carnem: verum sine judicio nihil facias grave. Si est tibi servus fidelis, sit tibi quasi anima tua; quasi fratrem sic eum tracta: quoniam in sanguine animal comparasti illum. Si laeseris illum injusti in fugam convertetur: & si extollens discesserit, quem quaerais [p19] et in qua via quaeras illum nescis." (9g)

We hear the H. Ghost speaking by the mouth of the wise man, & informing masters how they are to treat their wiked slaves, and how they ought to treat their good ones. Instead of giving this advice, would not God have forbidden slavery, had it been unlawful? From this text it may be concluded: that there were slaves in Solomon's times. It cannot be objected that these passages of Holy Writ, regard only the ceremonial part of the mosaic law, for they refer to morality in very pointed terms. The moral part of the Jewish law was never abrogated. Our Saviour came to fulfil and perfect the law. (9h)

[p20] "Manist autem in domo viri sui annis centum quinque, et dimisit Abram suam liberam." (9i) Judith set her han-maid [sic] free. We must therefore infer that her hand-maid was a slave.

It may be said that slavery was lawful under the mosaic law, but that it is by no means permitted under the law of grace. Hence St. Paul often speaks of having been set free by the coming of Christ.

This objection cannot stand. St. Paul often mentions spiritual freedom, or a freedom from sin. Had he believed that slavery was unlawful, he never would have requested Philemon to receive and set free his slave Onesimus that had absconded for a time; but he would have commanded him to do it. Besides, he would certainly have [p21] proved to Philemon in as strong terms as he could the unlawfulness of holding men in bondage. His advice to servants is plain. "Servi obedite Dominis carnalibus cum timone & tremore in simplicitate cordis vestri sicut Christo." (9j) According to this text, servants must have great respect for their masters, obey them even with fear and trembling & in the simplicity of their hearts, that is to say with blind obedience, and for this reason, because it is their sacred duty to consider their Masters as the representatives of Christ. Would this great Apostle have delivered himself thus, had slavery been unlawful? Would he not rather have addressed the [p22] Mathers and endeavoured to show them the impropriety of holding men in bondage? (9l) We all know the great zeal that St. Paul had for the conversion of souls. Can we suppose that he had as great a zeal against all other crimes, & yet was so very indifferent about the sin of keeping men in slavery, that he did not even mention it? Can it be said that St. Paul was so very inconsistent? Turn over the pages of Ecclesiastical History, and you will find many examples of men famed for their learning & virtue, who held men in bondage & even for life. We have the example of eminent Saints, & who, as such, have been canonized by the Church of God. (9k) Travel over the Four Quarters of the [p23] globe, & you will find thousands, nay millions of men, women and children held in bondage at the present day. Are we to have no respect for the general opinion of all nations? Must we confine ourselves to the opinion of a few sectaries. Are they the only people that have found the truth? Indeed we cannot be surprised at their extravagance, as they are generally the Admirers of Luther who had the boldness & arrogance to say, that all men had remained a long time in damnable errors, till he rose up to enlighten them! They, building on Luther's principle, have discovered that all men are free! It is this irregular and unbounded notion of liberty against which M. Jefferson in his notes on Virginia, has cautioned the American Republic. "But are [p24] there no inconveniences to be thrown into the scale against the advantages expected from a multiplication of numbers by the importation of foreigners? It is for the happiness of those united in Society to harmonize as much as possible in matters which they must of necessity transact together. Civil government being the sole object of forming Societies, its administration must be conducted by common consent. Every species of Government has its specific principles. Ours, perhaps, are more peculiar than any other in the Universe. It is a composition of freest principles of the English constitution with others derived from natural right & natural reason. To these nothing can be more opposed than the maxims of absolute [p25] Monarchies. Yet from such we are to expect the greatest number of emigrants. They will bring with them the principles of the governments they have imbibed in their early youth; or, if able to throw them off, it will be in exchange for an unbounded licentiousness, passing, as is usual, from one extreme to another. It would be a miracle, were they to srop precisely at the point of temperate liberty. These principles, with their language they will transmit to their children. In proportion to their numbers, they will share with us the legislation. They will infuse into it their spirit, warp & bias its directions, & render it a heterogeneous, incoherent distracted mass. I may appeal to experience during the present contest for a verification of these conjectures." Query 8. p. 91. [p26]

Slavery is according to Reason
All men are free --God never made one man to serve another (10). I should be glad to know whence this text comes. I can find it no where but in the mouths of modern sages. If we examine this unlimited principle of freedom by the divine economy displayed in the creation we shall find it incorrect. In the beginning God created the heaven and the Earth but he did not create them independent of each other. They essentially depend on one another. "Fecitque Deus duo luminaria magna: luminare majus ut praeesset diei: et luminare minus, ut praeesset nocti." (Gen 1. 16). God created the Angels but he placed a chief at the head of them and established different orders among them such as Thrones, Dominations, Principalities and powers (Coloss 1. 16). The Lion rules the forest, being Master and King of all the family of Quadrapeds. The eagle flies thro the boundless void and commands respect from all the feathered tribes: the fathomless deep is not without its kings and masters that rule over and prey upon the weaker tribes of the finny race. Man, being the noblest work of God's Creation is constituted Master and King over all living creatures and this creature, man, whom all creatures obey, must show due respect and submission to the great Master and King of the Universe. But how is this creature man to be governed? We know it is not good for man to be alone; he must have a help like unto himself ( Gen 2. 18 )-- and therefore he must live in Society. It seems that Society is necessary to his very existence and so the almighty has strongly intimated in the above passage of holy writ. But a society supposes the necessity of different orders to compose it. All cannot command-- All cannot obey. Some must command and others must obey. We cannot reasonably suppose that God has his agents in the Celestial hierachy, and that he never intended to have any on earth. The Angels of God are Beings much superior to man and therefore stand in less need of rulers to preside over them. It seems there were Chieftains in Heaven before the fall of Lucifer and his Associates; and we know that God established Society on Earth before the fall of man. But if Society was deemed necessary for those perfect creatures who were the cherished friends of God, how much more is it necessary for fallen man who is filled with boisterours passions, and is prone to evil from his youth? (Gen 8.21).

"Man is born free." This proposition duly limited is good; but when taken as it is by many in its widest sense it is bad. It is of Faith that every man is a Free Agent and has it in his power to choose good or evil. Thus far is reasonable and the strength of this observation is daily and hourly forced upon the mind of every rational creature. Man is so perfectly free in this respect, that no power on earth can compel him to do a wicked act unless he will. This has been sufficiently tested by the invincible constancy of whole legions of martyrs. But how far shall this principle of liberty be extended? Shall we unite and exclaim with modern Sophisters, Liberty and Equality? This however, will not do: it had a fair trial in the French Revolution and there it completely failed. Instead of Liberty, they found chains, and were made to serve under the lash of a cruel Despot; and in lieu of Equality, they experienced more inequality, than France ever saw before.

These men wish to meliorate the condition of the human race: nay, their zeal is so great that they will stop at no sacrifice in order to place human nature in the highest state of perfection. But such a zeal cannot be approved inasmuch as it is unwise and aims and impossibilities. They would have the present order of nature to be perfect in a higher degree, than God himself would have it. It is difficult to say how far they wish this principle of Liberty to extend. It is plain that they wish it not to stop precisely at the point of temperate Liberty. They will have all men to be free and all to be equal. But this is not practicable without introducing an unbounded licentiousness, and overturning the fundamental principles of good government. (10a) We know it is the will of Heaven that one man should be subject to another. It is according to right reason that the wife obey the husband because being the weaker of the two she depends on him for support and protection. "Et sub viri potestate eris & ipse dominabitur tibi." (11). For the same reason children must obey their parents. "Honoria patrem tuum & matrem tuam ut sis longaevus super terram quam Dominus Deus dabit tibi."(12). For a similar reason servants are bound to obey their masters. "Servi obedite Dominis carnalibus cum timore & tremore in simplicitate cordis vestri sicut Christo." (13). (*14)

Slavery is good-- is necessary.

It may be asserted with confidence that at least two fifths of the human family are deficient in parts of intellect, know not how to manage for and take care of themselves, or labour under diseases and afflictions or spend their lives in a round of vice and idleness. Walk over the globe and take a view of this great family. What misery, what distress, nay what scenes of despair will you not behold! How many will ask for employment in order to be freed from want! How many distressed widows and orphans crying for bread! How many unhappy beggars! A report made and inserted in the Washington Republican of June 1823 gives the following account of pauperism in Europe. "Among the 178,000,000 individuals who inhabit Europe, there are said to be 17,900,000 beggars or persons who subsist at the expense of the community without contributing to its resources. In Denmark the proportion is 5 per cent-- In England, 10 per cent-- In Holland, 14 per cent-- In Paris (in 1813) 102,859 paupers out of 530,000. In Liverpool, 17,000 in the population of 80,000. In Amsterdam 108,000 out of 217,000. The number of Indigent has since rather increased than decreased." (15). All the above paupers are lost to Society in a two-fold light. Society is not only deprived of their services, but it must also spend its treasures to support them. If these unhappy people had good masters, they would then be in a comfortable situation. They would be saved from a habit of indolence, which paralizes their every nerve, and entails upon them a crowd of various and afflicting diseases. In their infirmities the medical balm of comfort would be administered, and the soothing care of a kind master would drown their multiplied sorrows. Society would be relieved from a troublesome burden and States and Provinces would be freed from an enormous tax. Where slavery exists, beggars are rarely found. We must therefore conclude that slavery is not only lawful, reasonable and good, but that it is also necessary.

The Colour of the African.

May not the colour of the African denote the enormity of Cham's offense? Are they not excessively given to the lusts of the flesh as well as to the crime of intoxication? That Blacks are more ardent and more persevering in their amorous pursuits than whites is not only shown from daily experience but is also strongly supported by Mr. T. Jefferson in his notes on Virginia. "They are (says he) more ardent after their female; but love seems with them to be more an eager desire than a tender, delicate mixture of sentiment and sensation."(16). "Their love is ardent, but it kindles the senses only, not the imagination."(17). "Vices the most notorious seem to be the portion of this unhappy race: idleness, treachery, revenge, cruelty, impudence, stealing, lying, profanity, debauchery, nastiness and intemperance are said to have extinguished the principle of natural law, and to have silenced the reproofs of conscience. They are strangers to every sentiment of compassion and are an awful example of the corruption of man when left to himself." (18).

Does not the Almighty often leave visible marks of his judgements? If we go back to the creation, we find that he is so holy and so infinitely opposed to sin, that he has always branded the wretch with some mark of infamy and disgrace that dared to commit it. If we ascend up to Heaven we find the rebellious Lucifer is cast out of Heaven, deformed, changed into an ugly fiend and hurled like a fire-brand into the gulf of misery and woe. If we enter the garden of Eden, we find that human nature, which was at first adorned with all the beauties of grace and innocence, is now rendered odious by the corruption of sin. The wicked Cain that killed his brother Abel was cursed by his maker and masked with a sign of infamy. "Nunc igitur maledictus eris super terram......vagus et profugus eris super terram."(19). The trembling of his body, the perturbation of his mind, the wildness of his looks and his constant wandering disposition sufficiently indicated the guilt of his troubled soul and distinguished him from the piou families of Seth and Enos. Hence the descendents of are called in holy writ the children of men; whereas those of Seth and Enos are styled the sons of God. (20). We have several examples of spontaneous combustion caused by intoxication. We see the constitutions of thousands broken down and destroyed by the immoderate use of ardent spirits. Various diseases and even frequent death occur from excess in drinking. The shocking filthy and disgusting disease caused by the brutal sin of the flesh are too bad to be mentioned. I blush to think of them and my pen refuses to record them. (*21) Look into the moral world: observe the ways of Providence and you will see what dreadful effects of God's judgement appear on account of immorality! And after all can we doubt the effects of Noah's Curse? --As Cham's descendents were cursed it seems it was necessary that thro' the various windings of a long posterity they should wear some discriminating mark by which they might be distinguished from the virtuous families of Sem and Japheth. They could not have received a more distinctive mark than the one which they now wear: a mark which no length of ages, no change of climate, no change of food or treatment, and no alteration of circumstance can ever efface. Nothing but their intercourse with whites, can change the color of their skin. It is true we have all been cursed in Adam, but it seems they have received a particular stamp to denote a particular curse; & no wonder, for at the time of Noah's intoxicatioon, the earth had been purified & cleansed from its abominations: the wrath of Heaven had been appeased: Noeh & his family had hithert been pleasing in the divine light, and God had given his covenant as a perpetual memorial of his love to man. They had seen all the children of Adam, except themselves, swept away in the general wreck of nature on account of impurity; and yet notwithstanding so terrible an instance of God's justice, there was a wretch bold and daring enough to laugh at his aged Father's disgrace and again to defile the Earth by sin! Great therefore, must the crime have been & great the punishment which it deserved. It is well to observe here, that God established his covenant with Noah to remain for perpetual generations. (22). This was a blessing promised to the human race on account of Noah's piety and that of his family. Then is it not reasonable to believe that the curse put upon Cham & his family, was also to extend to perpetual generations, in regard to said family? The curse immediately followed the blessings: & an offense committed soon after a blessing has been received, is always considered much greater and more heinous, than it would have been, had no blessing been confered. But tho' God is severe in his justice yet his mercy endureth for ever.(23). He was too merciful to cast off, & utterly destroy the wicked race of Cham. (24). He no longer desired the death of the sinner but that he turn from his way & live. He was desirous that Cham would repent & therefore stamped on him an indelible mark as a constant monitor to indicate to him that he has to repent; and as a perpetual warning to his posterity to avoid a repetition of the same crime. We see that this mark still attends them in every country & in every clime, & God alone can tell when this mark of reprobation is to cease.

Cham was cursed by Noah. "Servus servorum erit."(25). This is a strong expression & may have influenced the descendants of many generations.(*26) But naturalists ascribe their colour to climate habits, food, treatment etc. It seems however, that but little importance can be attached to their opinion; for in this case, a change of climate etc. would infallibly change their colour back again. But we find that this is not the case. The U. States afford sufficent proof of my assertion. How many negroes am I acquainted with at this present day, that are as black as a negro can be, & who according to their own traditions, are the descendants of Africans brought to this country many years ago?- But the colour of their skin is not the only distinctive mark. Cham like Cain was branded with more marks than one. The hair was not only tinged like the skin, but it received a new form. From long, straight, flowing, handsome hair, it became quite short, villous & twisted into ordious curles, as if crisped by the application of fire. It is true, our Naturalists assert that the sun, in the tropical climates, is so strong that it burns & crisps the hair; & this is the reason which they assign of their hair having so much the appearance of a black sheep's wool. It will be well to hear M. Boile on the subject. "In Africa itself, many nations of Ethopia are not black, nor were there any blacks originally in the west Indes. In many parts of Asia, under the same parrallel with the African region inhabited by the blacks, the people are but tawny. He added, that there are nergoes in Africa, beyond the southern tropic; & that a river sometimes parts nations, one of which is black, & this other only tawny. M. Boyle has further observed that it (the black of the negro) cannot be produced by the heat of the climate for tho' the heat of the sun may darken the colour of the skin, yet experience does not show that it is sufficient to produce a new blackness like that of the negroes."(27).

What M. Jefferson has said of this question ought not to be passed unnoticed. "The difference which strikes us, is that of the colour. Whether the black of the negro resides in the reticular membrane between the skin and the scarf skin, or in the scarf skin itself; whether it proceeds from the colour of the blood, the colour of the bile, or from that of the same other secretion, the difference is fixed in the nature, & is as real as if its seat and cause were better known to us."(28).

It appears to me that neither the black colour nor the crisping of the hair, can be caused by the heat of the sun. The truth can be easily discovered by experiment. When a white man crisps his hair by fire the hair which is thus burnt, is rotten and can be detached from the sound and unburnt hair by friction. The hair of an African Negros, is always tough and strong. Besides, if the sun were so strong as to burn and crisp the hair, it would at the same time be strong enough to kill, or at least very materially to injure the man that might be exposed to its influence. When the white man's hair grows again, it has the same colour, and the same form that it always had. Remove the negro from this very warm climate to a temperate one, and his hair will always remain the same. It will be always black and always crisped. It is not so with the white man- a scorching sun may change the colour of his skin, but it will change back again when he returns to his native soil.* (*29)

There is a strange coincidence that takes place in negro children. I once saw an infant of a few days old, almost quite white, tho' its father and mother were even (I think) blacker than a crow. When I expressed my surprise at the sight, I was informed, that this is pretty commonly the case as they grow up, until at length they are as dark as their parents. I have since found my ocular experience supported by the Encyc. or Dic. of Arts & Sciences. "The young negroes at birth, & even negro.......have a considerable resemblence to whites excepting only that the......and......(modesty forbids) are black, & that they have a black or brown thread or circle on the extremity of the nail. These marks are a certain sign that the infant will be black, & negro fathers who suspect the fidility of their wives consider the want of them as a sufficent reason for abandoning the offspring. "(30).

Since I received the above information, I have taken notice of the said circumstance & from my observations, I am induced to believe that I was correctly informed. Can this phenomenon be caused by a tropical climate, when it happens in a very temperate one, such as that of the U. States? No- we must look elsewhere for the cause. When man loses himself in search of causes which do not exist, he must look up to providence for information. The child is white at its birth before it is stained with actual guilt. Cham, the birth of the African race, was white before the commission of crime. The infant is white, except where modesty conceals; and Cham committed his crime by looking where modesty forbids. View the contrast, & see how striking a resemblence exists between the circumstances of Cham's crime, & those of negro infants at the present day. The skin is black, denoting the heinousness of sin: the hair is crisped, as if scorched by fire, & yet it is not consumed; strongly indicating the effects of eternal fire which always burns, but never consumes: & finally they are doomed to be the servants of Servants unto their brethren; "servus servorum erit fractribus suis," which words are a salutary admonition to that unhappy race to avoid the eternal slavery of sin.(31). These marks of reprobation are blessings, if they make a right use of them.

I doubt not, that this mode of reasoning goes too far for the taste of modern critics. It savours too much of the dark ages: it has too much of the marvellous. Modern Sages have discovered natural causes for everything. No mysteries are too dark for their penetration. They can ascend above the stars & look down with contempt upon common mortals. The Scriptures are too low for these noble minded beings! They have exalted ideas! With them, providence is out of the question; they apply to naked nature for causes: they are the only wise people.- However, in simplicity of heart, I rather unite with the simple quia "cum simplicibus Sermocinatio ejus."(32). We are surrounded by Providence; we daily receive innumerable blessings; wrath of heaven; and are we not to notice these divine intimations? Must we be incredulous and ungrateful, because the ways of God are mysterious, & because his mercy endureth for ever? (33). What wicked folly! Combining all the above circumstances, we must acknowledge that they have great weight, & that the sun can not be the cause of the African black.

It appears that the colour does not reside in the blood; or, in other words that the blood is not the cause of the colour. We see negroes and mulattoes that have been burnt etc. By these accidents the colour is quite changed. (*34) In mulattoes the skin approaches white, in negroes it resembles a tawny colour. But the blood circulates as freely under the burnt as under the unburnt surface. If the blood were the cause, then the burnt place would be as black as any other -- but we find that this is not the case -- therefore the blood cannot be the cause of it. Hence it seems that the African has been stained, and consequently black was not his original colour. (*35) The colour of the Negro influences the external skin only. Cham's eyes saw no further than Noah's skin, and the Lord was pleased to strike his skin with a mark of divine displeasure as a token of his guilt. This mark has descended to his posterity and become hereditary. But it does not follow that the Africans are a race of men specifically different in their nature from the rest of mankind, no more than Cain's having been a fugitive and a vagabond can argue that he was of a different race from Abel. The black of the African seems, indeed, to have become a secondary nature, when we consider it in the context of its duration; but an accidental or secondary nature can no more be identified with a primary nature, than our corrupted and sinful nature can be identified with the primative nature of Adam, which before his fall was pure and uncontaminated by sin. Africans therefore do not differ in their nature from the rest of men. The only distinction that exhists is the mark of a particular crime, committed at a particular time, the guilt of which was highly aggravated by a variety of concomitant circumstances. The curse has also appeared in various shapes.

But why has God done this? Why has he punished the children for the father's offence, "to the third and fourth generation?"(36). Dare we ask such questions? Can we impeach high heaven's throne and call the author of our Being to an account for his conduct? O no: let us rather hide our heads in the dust from which we were taken and cry out with, "those who had overcome the beast, (*38) and his image and the number of his name, standing on the sea of glass, having the harps of God, and singing the canticle of Moses the servant of God, and the Canticle of the Lamb, saying: Great and wonderful are thy works, O Lord. God Almighty: just and true are thy ways O King of Ages. Who shall not fear thee, O Lord, and magnify thy name? For thou only art holy: For all nations shall come, and adore in thy sight, because thy judgements are manifest."(37). "Yea O Lord God almighty, true and just are thy judgements "(39). "For true and just are his judgements, who hath judged the great harlot (*41) which currupted the Earth with her fornication, and hath revenged the blood of his Servants (*42) at her hands." (40).

"And Noah awakening from the wine," etc.(43). From this text it seems that Noah was asleep in his tent when Cham first saw him exposed. There is no doubt that Cham laughed at every circumstance even that of his being asleep on such an occasion. It is well known that negreos are remarkable for their sleepy disposition. "In general their existance appears to participate more of sensation than reflection. To this must be ascribed their disposition to sleep, when abstracted from their diversions and unemployed in labour."(44).

Cham also laughed at the cumstance of Noah's being ignorant of his situation. (*45) Are we not struck at the stupid ignorance of Africans and their dull understanding which we daily witness? Hear Mr. Jefferson on this point. "Comparing them by their faculties of memory, reason and imagination, it appears to me that in memory they are equal to the whites; in reason much inferior, as I think one could scarcely be found capable of tracing and comprehending the investigations of Euclid, and that in imagination they are dull, tasteless and anomalous. It would be unfair to follow them to Africa for this investigation. We will consider them here, on the same stage with the whites, and where the facts are not apocryphal; on which a judgement is to be formed. It will be right to make allowances for the difference of condition, of education, of conversation, of the sphere in which they move. Millions of them have been born in America. Most of them, indeed, have been confined to tillage and to their own homes, and their own society; yet many of them have been so situated, that they might have availed themselves of the converstion of their master; many of them have been brought up to the handycraft arts; and from that circumstance have always been associated with the whites. Some of them have been liberally educated; all of them have lived in countries where the arts and sciences cultivated to a considerable degree; and have had before their eyes samples of the best works from abroad. The Indians with no advantages of this kind, will often carve figures on their pipes not destitute of design and merit. They will crayon out an animal, a plant of a country, so as to prove the existance of a germ in their minds which only wants cutlivation. They astonish you with strokes of the most sublime oratory, such as prove their reason and sentiment strong; their imagination glowing and elevated. But never yet could I find that a Black had uttered a thought above the level of plain narration; never see even an elementary trait of painting or sculpture. In Music they are more generally gifted than the whites with accurated ears for tune and time, and they have been found capable of imagining a small catch........, The improvement of the Blacks in body and mind, in the first instance of their mixture with the whites, has been observed by everyone and proves that their inferiority is not the effects of their condition of life. We know that among the Romans, about the Augustan age especially, the condition of their slavery was much more deplorable, than that of the Blacks on the Continent of America...... Yet, notwithstanding all their discouraging circumstances among the Romans, the slaves were often their rarest artisans. They excelled too in sciences insomuch as to be usually employed as Tutors to their Masters' children. Epictetus Terence and Paedrus were slaves: but they were of the race of whites. It is not their condition then but nature which has produced the distinction."(46).

Cham, by informing his Brothers of his Father's situation, committed the sin of detraction. Perhaps it would not be incorrect to say that his descendants are more given to this sin, as well as to that of slander, than any other people on Earth. Their characters are so extremely low in regard of telling the truth, that masters in general, betray much hesitation in believing anything that is told them by Blacks. It is a known truth that they teach their children the art of lying, if not in a direct, at least in an indirect way. They indulge them in the defaming of others, and even join them in it. How exactly does this conduct agree with that of Cham, in regard of his son Chanaan? According to the tradition of the Hebrews, Chanaan, at the time of Noah's intoxication (being then a boy) was the first that saw his grandfather's exposed situation, told his Father Cham of it, and joined him in laughing at it. The Father did not rebuke the son for his fault, but encouraged him in it. --- Cham ridiculed Noah. Africans are prone to ridicule -- they ridicule one another, and seem fond of indulging in this kind of sport. --

Cham pointed out Noah s disgrace, & the finger of scorn is pointed at this unhappy Descendants wherever they are found.(47) "Addit Berosius Anni (penes quem sit fides) Cham fiusse magum &c." Hence it appears that Cham was a magician. Every one knows how far Africans are biased in favour of magic. Even when brought up in a civilized world & educated by Christian people they are fond of necromancy, take pleasure in having their fortunes told, & are wedded to various superstitious notions. In fine Cham endeavoured to poison the morals of Sam & Zapheth, & his descendants are in the habit of poisoning the bodies of their brethren.

Seeing then that the colour of the African could not have commenced with any other period than the one which I have mentioned, how deeply ought we to be penetrated with the consideration of God s mysterious ways! While we fear his terrible judgments, we cannot but admire his perfect Sanctity & infinite aversion to sin: Sin is our greatest evil because it opens the door to all other evils, & in the various occurrences of life, draws down the judgments of heaven upon hardened and unrepenting sinners. The ways of God are as mysterious as they are awful; for in the visitations of Heaven, we sometimes see that there is little or no distinction between the just man & the sinner. But tho God sometimes chastises those whom he loves as a trial of their fidelity; yet we know and often see that he much more severely chastises the hardened sinner, & visits him with his severest judgments. He strikes the Blasphemer with sudden death and often leaves the wretch that is buried in crime to breathe out his last in final impenitence. We have reason then to fear the Almighty, & to observe with St. Paul, that "it is a dreadful thing to fall into the hands of the living God "(48).

When we see the maledictions of Heaven poured out upon a widely, extended branch of the human family, when we see the unrelenting severity of divine justice they continued for many ages, & find that we are utterly at a loss in divining when these marks of vengeance are to cease, we are naturally inclined to suppose that we are authorized to mal-heal & oppress this unhappy race of Beings. Self-interest & a crowd of other vicious passions will burst forth to defend & support our natural propensities: they will persuade us that we are always at liberty to despise & even hate them, & to press down their humbled necks with the iron yoke, because they have been unfortunate. Such is the language of nature and of those narrow minded men, who never can feel for the way of others. But we are not to listen to the dictates of corrupted nature: the language of grace is the language of christians & we are taught under the law of grace to pity the misfortunes of a brother. Charity, as is! Paul says, makes no distinction between nations & persons. 'Ubi non est gentilis & Judous circumsisi & proputium, Barbarus & Scytha, Servus & Liber sed ossinia & in omnibus Christus."(49). (*50)

Whence came the red colour of the Indian?

It seems reasonable to suppose that the Indians are the descendants of Esau. If we pay attention to the Indians of the U. States, we shall discover a strong resemblance between their persons, customs & manners, and those of Esau. The circumstances of his history were emblematic of what was to follow; as well as Isaac's prophetic blessings to his two sons were so many Indices pointing to future events. Esau came into the world first, & by that circumstance obtained the right of primogeniture. The Ancestors of our Indians were the first people so far as we know, that came over and settled in this country, & therefore claimed it as it were by the right of primogeniture.

Esau was red & hairy. (*51) (52) Our Indians are red & are often called red people or red skins. They call themselves the red children of the great American Father, meaning the President of the U. States. It seems they have no beard & but little hair upon the head. (*53) I have been informed by one that has lived some time amongst them, that they are remarkable for long, coarse hair; but that they pluck it out by the roots when young. (*54) In this they are wise, inasmuch as long hair is not only a great inconvenience, but a very dangerous companion in time of war. This may be shown from the History of Absolam, of whose fate our Indians may have heard from their Ancestors. It is, indeed, remarked in Long s Exped. to roc. Mount. that they preserve a tuft of hair on the top of the head for a scalp, which circumstance with them is considered as a point of honour.

Esau was a lover of the chase, fond of scrambling & seldom at home.

No people on Earth can resemble Esau more in this respect than our American Indians. It seems that the blessing which Esau received from Isaac, was to be a dwelling in the fat of the land & in the dew of heaven. (55) "In periguedine terrae, & in rore coeli desuper erit benedictio tua; haebraice est, erit sessio vel habitatio tua". (55). Nay which we are to understand, that he was to lead a rambling life, to have no other covering during his nocturnal repore, than the canopy of heaven; & in difficult seasons, to use only tents as our Indians do.

Vives in gladio." (56). Esau was to live by the sword, that is by plunder & rapine. (57) Besides the many vices that are common amongst our Indians; that of stealing horses seems to be considered as a national virtue, as may be seen in Long s Exped. to rock. Mount Vol. 1. p. 268.

Esau sold his birthright to Jacob for a mess of rock pottage.(*58)
This he obtained by impetration Our Indians sold their Birth-right to this country, for mere toys, such as strings of beads &c.

It seems that after Esau had sold his Birthright to Jacob, he did not consider that he had bartered it away. Our Indians are very fickle in this respect. (*59)

Esau always hated Jacob was jealous of him, & even sought his life, until Jacob appeased him by presents. Our Indians are jealous of the whites betray great antipathies in their regard, & frequently seek & take away their lives, unless appeased by presents. Vindictive jealousy is no uncommon trait in the Indian character. Long s Exped. to roc. Mount. Vol. 1. p. 266.

"Duae gentes sunt in utero tuo , & duo populi ex ventre tuo dividentur, populusq' populum superabit & major serviet minori. "(60). Here we are informed that the two brothers were to be the chiefs of two different nations. The Indians from time immemorial have been a nation very distinct from the whites. Two people shall be divided &c. (61) After the death of Isaac we find that Esau went into another country and departed from his brother Jacob. (62). (*63) In 1822 our Congress debated on the expediency of engaging Missionaries to civilize the Indians. Some of the members urged that frequent attempts had been made to civilize them, but without effect. And one people shall the other and the elder shall serve the younger. (64). Every one presented with the history of America will immediately see that this last part of the prophecy has been literally fulfilled in the South American Indians.

In the 26th Chapter of Genesis Esau's family is said to be divided into Societies or tribes, and governed by Dukes or Chiefs, as our Indians are governed at the present day. The words of the Lord spoken by the Prophet Malachias concerning Jacob and Esau are very remarkable. "I have loved you saith the Lord: and you have said: Wherein hast thou loved us? Was not Esau brother to Jacob saith the Lord, and I have loved Jacob, but have hated Esau? And I have made his mountains a wilderness and given his inheritance to the dragons of the desert. But if Esau shall say: We are destroyed; but we will return and build-up what hath been destroyed: thus saith the Lord of hosts: they shall build up, and I will throw down: and they shall be called to the borders of wickedness, and the people with whom the Lord is angry for ever. And your eyes shall see: and you shall say: the Lord be magnified upon this boarder of Israel."(65).

The following texts also regard Esau.

"Esau took wives of the daughter of Chanaan: Ada, the daughter of Elon the Hethite and Colebanna the daughter of Sebeon the Hevite: and Basemath the daughter of Ismael sister of Nabajoth."(66).

"But I have made Esau bare; I have revealed his secrets and he cannot be hid: his seed is Caibe waste, and his brethen and his neighbors; and he shall not be."(67). "How have they searched Esau how have they sought out his hidden things?...`Shall not I in that day, destroy the wise out of Edom and the understanding out of the mount of Esau?...'And thy valiant men of the south shall be afraid, that man may be cut off from the mount of Esau (*69) ...and the house of Jacob shall be a fire, and the house of Joseph a flame, and the house of Esau rubble;they shall be kindled in them: and shall devour them: and there shall be no remains of the house of Esau; for the Lord hath spoken it...and they that are toward the South, shall inherit the mount of Esau, and the kingdom shall be for the Lord." (68).

"You shall pass the borders of your brethren the children of Esau, who dwell in Teir...I have given mount Teir to Esau in Idiemea...because they beset the Israelites round about and he made a great slaughter of them... then Judas and his brethren went forth, and attacked the children of Esau, in the land towards the south."(70).

"By faith Isaac blessed Jacob and Esau concerning things to come."(71).

"Lest their be fornicator or profane person as Esau, who for one mess sold his first birth right."(72)

"And Esau seeing that his father had blessed Jacob, and had sent him into Mesopotamia of Syria, to marry a wife there; and that after the blessing he had charged him, saying: thou shalt not take a wife of the daughters of Chanaan: and that Jacob obeying his parents was gone into Syria: Experiencing also that his father was not well pleased with the daughters of Chanaan: he went to Ismael and took to wife, besides them he had before, Maheleth the daughter of Ismael Abraham's son, the sister of Nabajoth.(73).

The following texts regard Ismael and his family. "He shall be a wild man: his hand will be against all men, and all men's hands against him: and he shall pitch his tents over against all his brethen...and Agar brought forth a Son the Abraham who called his name Ismael."(74).

"And when Sarah had seen the son of Agar the Egyptian playing with Isaac her son, she said to Abraham: cast out this bond-woman and her son: for the son of the bond-woman, shall not be Heir with my son Isaac...But I will make the son also of the Bond-woman a great nation, because he is thy seed."(75).

"Arise, take up the boy, and hold him by the hand: for I will make him a great Nation...And God was with him: and he grew and dwelt in the wilderness, and became a young man, an Archer. And he dwelt in the wilderness of Pharan, and his mother took a wife for him out of the land of Egypt."(76).

"These are the generations of Ismael the son of Abraham, whom Agar the Egyptian, Sarah's servant bore unto him. And these are the names of his children, according to their calling and generations. The first born of Ismael was Nabajoth, then Cedar, and Abdeel, and Mab-Sam, and Masma and Duma and Massa, Hadar, and Themar, and Jethur and Nappis, and Cedma. These are the sons of Ismael: and these are their names by their castles and towns, twelve Princes of their tribes. And the years of Ismael's life were 137.....And he dwelt from Hevila as far as Sur, which looketh towards Egypt to them that go towards the Assyrians. He died in the presence of all his brethen."(77).

"And when all the Captains of the Soldiers had heard this....they came to Ismael the son of Nathanians and C."(78).

" And he (Holofernes) took by assault the renowned City of Melothus, and pillaged all the children of Thursis, and the children of Ismael, who were over against the face of the desert and on the South of the land of Cellon."(79).

"And sitting down to eat bread, they saw some Ismaelites on their way coming from Galaad, with their camels, carrying spices, and balm and myrrh to Egypt."(80)

. "For the Ismaelites were accustomed to wear golden earlets."(81).

"And Abigail bore Amasa whose father was Jether the Ismaelite."(82).

"And over the Camels, Ubil an Ismaelite."(83).

"For they have contrived with one consent: they have made a Covenant together against thee; the tabernacles of the Edomites and the Ismaelites."(84).

Cham's Descendants

Children inherit their parents dispositions and their Parents' vices, or virtues.

Berosius says that Cham was a Magician. (see pag. 67) The Author of the book of wisdom addressing Almighty God concerning the Descendants of Cham says; " O Lord, thou didst abhor the ancient Inhabitants of the holy Land, because they did works hateful to thee by their sorceries and wicked Sacrifices, and those merciless murderers of their own Children and eaters of men's bowels and devourers of blood from the midst of thy consecration, and those parents sacrificing with their own hands helpless souls, it was thy will to destroy by the hands of our parents, that the land, which of all, is most dear to thee, might receive a mighty Colony of the Children of God." Chap. 12.3 etc.

"Thou wast not ignorant that they were a wicked generation and their malice natural, (*85) and that their thought could not be changed. (*86) For it was a cursed seed from the beginning." (*87) Wisdom. Chap. 12-10-11.

Old Africans living in Maryland have frequently confessed and seemingly with pleasure that they had been accustomed in their own Country to feast upon roasted Infants and that a pickaninny (a roasted infant) was the sweetest morsel they have ever tasted!

If this account is true, we may reasonably concluded that the African character accords with the above Scriptural passage in all its parts.

The following divisions of the human race are taken from Goldsmith's Animated Nature: Vol. 1 - page 364 to the end of page 380. The first distinct race of men is found around the polar regions: ver. the Laplanders, Esquirmaux Indians, Lamoids, Tartars, NovaLemblans, Borandians, Greenlanders and the Kamskatkans. All these resemble each other in stature and customs etc. Their colour is a deep brown-visage laige and broad, nose flat and short, eyes of a yellowish brown, eyelids drawn towards the temples, cheek bones extremely high, mouth very large, lips thick and turned outward, voice thin and squeaking, head large, hair black and straight- common stature of feet and greatest 5 feet. Krantz says their skin is of a dark greyish colour. All these have the same inclinations, manners, rudeness, superstitions and stupidity.

Second race - Tartars

The Tartars from whom the above Nations probably sprung, are those who inhabit the great middle division of Asia. Upper part of the visage very broad and wrinkled, even in youth- nose flat and short, eyes little and sunk into the head, and in some 5 or 6 inches asunder- cheek bones high, lower part of the visage narrow, chin long and advanced forward, teeth enormously large, growing separate from each other, eyebrows thick and large, covering the eye, eyelids thick and large, face broad and flat, complexion olive-colourd and hair black - Of a middle size, extremely strong and very robust- but little beard growing stragglingly on the chin- large thighs and short legs. The Calmucks are the ugliest: they appear frightful- All lead an erratic life remaining under tents of hair or skins- Their food is camel and horse flesh raw or a little sodden between the horse and the saddle. They drink mare's milk fermented with millet and groused into meal (*88) - Head shaved, except a lock on the top - Have no decency or behavior - Are often sold as slaves. Their riches consist in horses. To this race the Chinese & Japonians are referred between whom there is a surprising likeness. The Chinese have broad faces, small eyes, flat noses, scarcely any beard--square shouldered and rather less in stature than the Europeans. The Japonians who blacken their teeth are like the Chinese only a little browner. To these are also referred the Cochin Chinese, Toquinese and the natives of Aracan Laos and Pequ, who differ but little from the Chinese.

Third Race--East Indians

The nations that inhabit the peninsula of India, seem to be the principal stock from whence the Inhabitants of the Islands that lie scattered over the Indian ocean, have been peopled. They are generally of a slender shape, have long straight black hair, and many have Roman noses. The Indians are of an olive colour, and in the more southern parts black. Tho the word Mogul in their language signifies a white man. Over all India the children arrive sooner at maturity than those in Europe. They often marry and consumate, the husband at 10 years old and the wife at 8; and they frequently have children at that age.

Fourth Race--Negroes

This gloomy race of mankind is found to blacken all the southern parts of Africa from 18 N. of this line to the cape of good Hope. The Negro nations differ--those of Guinea are extremely ugly and have an insupportable scent. The Negroes of Mosambique are deemed handsome and have no ill smell whatever. The Negroes in general are of black colour with a smooth soft-skin. The hair of their heads is soft --woolly and short--beard nearly the same which soon turns grey, while the hair of the head is yet black-- their eye generally of a deep hazel--noses flat & short--lips thick & timid(?)--teeth of an ivory whiteness--they are generally stupid, insolent and mischievous.

Fifth Race--American Indians

These are different from all others in colour. They are red or copper (except in the northern extremity where they assemble the Laplanders) and though in the old world different climates & variety of complexions and customs yet the Natives of the new Continent resemble each other in almost every respect. They are all nearly of one colour: all have black thick straight hair & thin, black beards which, however, they take care to pluck out by the roots--flat noses generally, cheek bones high, small eyes-- The childrens heads are flattened by art. They paint the body and face with various colours--limbs more slightly made than those of Europeans & not so strong--have a serious air--Seldom think--cruel to their enemies, but kind & just to each other.

Sixth Race--White Man

These inhabit Europe and the nations bordering on it. In this class may be reckoned the Georgians, Circassians, and Mingrelians, those of Asia Minor, the Northern parts of Africa and part of those countries lying N.W. of the Caspian Sea. In barbarous countries they go either naked or awkwardly clothed in furs or feathers; in countries semibarbarous , the robes are loose and flowing; but among white men the clothing is made less for show than expedition and unites as much as possible the extremes of ornament and dispatch. In the Islands of the Indian Ocean, where a trade has been carried on from time immemorial, the Inhabitants appear to be a mixture of all the nations upon the earth; white, olive, brown and black men are all seen living together in the same city, & propagate a mixed breed that can be referred to none of the classes, into which naturalists have thought proper to divide mankind. The olive-coloured Asiatic & even the jet-black Negro claim the honour of hereditary resemblance, & assert that white men are mere deviations from original perfection. They are supported in this opinion by the great naturalist Linnaeus, who supposes man a native of the tropical climates & only a sojourner more to the North. But it seems that alll these together are not infallible. We have frequently seen white children produced from black parents, but we have never seen a black offspring the production of two whites--Hence we may conclude that whiteness is the colour to which mankind naturally tends for in the tulip, the parent stock is known by all the artificial varieties breaking into it, so in man that colour must be original that never alters, and he which all the others are accidentally to change. I have seen in London, at different times, two white negroes , the issue of black parents that served to convince me of the truth of this theory. I had before been taught to believe, that the whiteness of the Negro skin was a disease, a kind of milky whiteness, that might rather be called a leprous crust than a natural complexion--that the numberless white negroes found in various parts of Africa, the white men that go by the name of Chacrelas in the East Indies, and the Isthmus of Darien in the West Indies, were all so many diseased persons and even more deformed than the blackest of the natives. But upon examining that negro that was last shown in London, I found the colour to be exactly like that of a European, the visage white and ruddy(?) , and the lips of a proper redness. However there sufficient marks to convince me of its descent. The hair was white and woolly, & very unlike anything I had seen before. The iris of the eye was yellow, incling to red, nose flat exactly resembling that of a Negro--lips black and prominent--no doubt could be entertained of its having been born of negro parents ; and the person that showed it had attestations sufficient to convince the most incredulous. Hence the variations of the negro colour is into whiteness; whereas the white are never found to have a race of Negro children. Therefore all those changes which the African, the Asiatic and the American undergo are only accidental deformities. Goldsmith Vol.1. page 364 to the end of 380.> The colour, therefore most natural to man, ought to be that which is most becoming; and it is found that in all regions, the children are born fair or at least red, and that they grow blacker or more tawny, as they advance in age. It should seem consequently, that man is naturally white; since the same causes that darken the complexion in infants, they have originally operated, in slower degrees, in blackening whole nations. We could, therefore, readily account for the blackness of different nations, did we not see the aboriginal Americans, who live under the line, as well as the natives in Negroland, of a red colour, and but a very small share darker than the natives of the northern latitudes, on the same continent. For this reason some have sought for other causes of blackness than the climate; and have endeavoured to prove, that the blacks are a race of people bred from one man, who was marked with accidental blackness. This, however, is but mere ungrounded conjecture, & altho the Americans are not so dark as the Negroes; yet we must stll continue in the ancient opinion, that the deepness of the colour proceeds from the excessive heat of the climate. Goldsmith s Animated Nature Vol.1. page 375--


(1) "Et ego dico tibi, quia tu es Petrus, & super hanc Petram edificabo Ecclesiam meam, & portæ inferi non provalebunt adversius eam." (Matt. 16.18)[Return to Text]

(2) "Cum auteur senerit ille spiritus seritatis, docebit vos oinneu seritatern." (Jns.16.13.)[Return to Text]

(3) This assertion is sufficiently supported by Mr. Burke. "The people are protestants, & of that kind which is the most adverse to all implicit submission of mind & opinion. This is a persuasion, not only favourable to liberty, but built upon it.... All protestantism even the most cool and passive, is a sort of dissent: whereas, everyone knows, that the Rom. Cath. Religion is at least coeval with most of the Governments, where it prevails, that it has generally gone hand in hand with them, & received great favour & every kind of support from Authority." Hazhlitt, Eloquence of the British Senate. Vol. 1, p. 297 & 298.[Return to Text]

(4) Encyclopedia on Dict. of Arts @ Sciences vol. 12 p.526. [Return to Text].

(5) Margin; Gen. 12.16 [Return to Text]

(6) Margin: Gen. 20.8.14. [Return to Text]

(7) Margin: Gen. 26.25. [Return to Text]

(8) Margin: Gen. 30.43. [Return to Text]

(9) Margin: Gen. 32.5. [Return to Text]

(9a) Margin: Exod. In this test we have authority for buying a servant for [p16] the term of six years, "for retaining him, his wife & his children in servitude for life; & finally for selling even a daughter." Now, if a man can sell his daughter, can he not sell his slave? (Footnote)[Return to Text]

(9b) (Footnote) It is asserted by some Logicians of the day, that a man by selling his slave, not only sells his body, but also his soul! I suspect that this opinion rose out of the Bible Societies, which are spreading Bibles over all the world in order that Negroes as well as Whites may learn how to interpret scripture in their own private way, & discover that they are or ought to be free. Governments do not seem to be aware of the pernicious tendency of this Bible work. We know that all heresies sprung[sic] from the Bible misintepreted. The Adamites discovered by the aid of the Bible, that they ought to go perfectly naked as they were when born, because Adam was so in his state of innocence! May not Blacks discover in the Bible that they are the Israelites or people of God, with a Moses at their head and that they are destined to drown the Egyptians or Whites in the red sea or Sea of Blood? Or can they not persuade themselves, that they are a race of modern Machabees raised up by the Almighty to scourge the wicked? To what extravagance will not the Bible misinterpreted carry the ignorant? -- Against this soul-sellling opinion, the Saviour has spoken in very positive terms. "And fear not those who kill the body & are not able to kill the soul, but rather fear him, who can destroy both soul & body in hell." [Matt. 10.28] [Return to Text]

(9b) Margin: Exod. 21.20 [Return to Text]

(9c) Margin: Exod. 21.21 [Return to Text]

(9d) Margin: Levit. 25.6 [Return to Text]

(9e) Margin: Exod. 21.26 [Return to Text]

(9f) Margin: Levit. 25.44 [Return to Text]

(9g) Margin: Eccli. 33.25 ad finem. [Return to Text]

(9h) Margin: Matt. 5.57 [Return to Text]

(9i) Margin: Judith. 16. 28 [Return to Text]

(9j) Margin: Ephes. 6.5. [Return to Text]

(9k) (Footnote) After advising the servants, he addresses the masters. "Et vos Domini, eadem facite illis remittentes minas, scientes quia & illorum & vestes Dominus est in coelis & personarum acceptio non est apud eum." Ephes. 6.9. [Return to Text]

(9l) [Omitted matter] We all know the great zeal that St. Paul had for the conversion of souls. Can we suppose that he had so great a zeal against all other crimes, & yet was so very indifferent about the sin of keeping men in slavery, that he did not even mention it? Can it be said that St. Paul was so very inconsistent? Turn over the pages of Ecclesiastical History, and you will find many examples of men famed for their learning, & virtue, who held men in bondage & even for life. We have the examples of the eminent Saints, & who, as such, have been canonized by the Church of God. (Footnote) St. Pamphilus had slaves & possessed them till his death. Butler. Vol. 6. p.16.17. St. Gerald also possessed slaves. But[ler] Vol. 10. p. 301. [Return to Text]

(10) (Footnote- "L'homme est ne' libre, et partout il est dans les fert." Rousseau) [Return to Text]

(10a) (Footnote- Mr. Lock has observed that, "where there is no law, there is no freedom." Encyc. or Dic. Vol. 10 p. 22.) [Return to Text]

(11) Margin: Gen. 3. 16 [Return to Text].

(12) Margin: Exod. 20. 12. [Return to Text]

(13) Margin: Ephes. 6. 5. [Return to Text]

(14) (Footnote- Slavery is fully authorized in the book of Liviticus. " Let your bond-men and your bond-women be of the nations that are round about you. And of the strangers that sojourn among you, or that were born of them in your land, there you shall have for servants: and by right of inheritance shall leave them to your posterity, and shall possess them for ever. But oppress not your brethren the children of Israel by might. If the hand of a stranger or a Sojourner grow strong among you, and thy brother being impoverished sell himself to him, or to any of his race, after the sale he may be redeemed. He that will of his brethren shall redeem him." etc. Chap. 25. ver. 44. [Return to Text]


(16) Margin: page 142. DIR QUOTE=JEFFERSON. [Return to Text]

(17) Margin: page 144. [Return to Text]

(18) Encyc. or Dic. of Arts and Sciences vol. 12 p. 794. [Return to Text]

(19) Margin: Gen. 14.11.12. [Return to Text]

(20) Margin: Gen. 6.2. [Return to Text]

(21) (Footnote- Why is not the brute creation afflicted with these filthy diseases? Philosophers resting on weak possibilities or distant probabilities may answer this question but they will never give a satisfactory answer until they acknowledge in these appalling evils the just vengeance of and offended God. The brute acts and remains innocent because having no law to control him, he is incapable of sin: Man acts, and is stained with crime because he transgresses the law of his Maker. The brute answers the need for which he was created; man deviates from it and frustrates the noble designs of his Creator. The brute remains free from disorders, and man is visited by the most filthy and disgusting diseases, plainly indicating the wrath of Heaven. Look at this Oman, and if you do not love God, at least learn to fear him.) [Return to Text]

(22) Margin; Gen. 9.12. [Return to Text]

(23) Margin; Ps.qq.5. [Return to Text]

(24) Margin; Exec. 33.55. [Return to Text]

(25) Margin; Gen. 9.25. [Return to Text]

(26) (Footnote- It seems that the Jews never entertained a doubt of Cham or Chamaan's having been cursed by Almighty God. <Dir. Quote= Peter the Apostle, vol.5. pag. 246. Philas. Edit.> "The Jews usually call such cities by that figurative name; as they gave to a <44-45> city infamous for debaucheries, the name of Lordoms; to an Idolatrous country, that of Egypt, & to a race accursed by God, that of Canaan. Rome is also called Babylon in the Apocalypse. Butler's life of it!") [Return to Text]

(27) Ency, of Dir. arts and Sciences vol. 52: p.794. [Return to Text]

(28) Jefferson, Notes on Virg. pag. 141 & 142. [Return to Text]

(29) (Begin Footnote- The author of the Encyc. of Dir. of Arts and Sciences, seems to have taken much pains to prove that the black in neroes is the effect of climate: but let him turn over the pages of Ancient & modern History, & dive into the mysteries of nature as far as human genius can go, & he will always meet with difficulties on this subject, which no one can explain, unless he assume the ground which I have taken. He says "that the black colour which in most climates is natural to some kinds of brute animals, is altered, or entirelly affaced in a different zone." (Vol. 12. p. 795.) Is it then true that a black serpent, a black hog, a black sheep. or a black man will have his colour altered or entirely effaced and become white by removing to a northern climate? If so, I would advise all blacks to emigrate to different zones, where they will all become white. Would not the powers of Europe, which are now engaged in suppressing the slave trade, do well to spend some of their treasures on the Africans and send them to colder climes? Of what colour is the Ostrich? Are there no white sheep in Africa? If there are, why has not the sun the same power over their wool, as it has over that of the negro? Plunge deeper & deeper into the mysteries of nature, call in every argument to your aid, sum up all your proofs, & yet you will find yourself in a babyrinth out of which, no man can extricate you. You must rub off the stain of sin, before you can wash the Ethiopian white. In vain will man endeavor to wash off the blot of the African, which the Almighty finger has painted on his skin. If we wish to account for the African black in a fair & reasonable way, we must keep God's justice & infinite Sanctity in view: when we lose sight of these, we are lost in the darkness of ignorance & stupid folly.

M. Jedidiah Morse, in his Geography Made Easy, speaking of the animals of New Britain page 58, says, "In summer there is here, as in other places, a variety in the colours of the several animals; when that season is over which only holds three months, they all assume the livery of winter, & every sort of beasts, and most of their fowls, are of the colour of the snow; every thing animate & inanimate is white."( Geography Made Easy pg.58). This shows that climate produces only a temporary alteration in the colour, & not a permanent one, such as we find in the African here. (End Footnote). [Return to Text]

(30) Encyc. of Dir. of Arts & Sciences vol. 12. p. 795. [Return to Text]

(31) Margin; Gen. 9.25. [Return to Text]

(32) Margin; Prov. 3.32 [Return to Text]

(33) Margin; Ps. qq. 5-. [Return to Text]

(34) (Footnote- "In those who have received wounds, who have suffered by burnings, or who retain marks of the small pox, the parts which were affected, are of a tawny colour." (Encyc. or Dict. of Arts and Sciences, Vol. 12, p. 796). [Return to Text]

(35) (Footnote- "Adam and Eve and their posterity till the time of the deluge were white: in the first age of the world no black nation was to be found on the face of the Earth."(Encyc. or Dic. of Arts and Sciences Vol. 12 p. 796). [Return to Text]

(36) Margin: Exod. 20.5. [Return to Text]

(37) Margin: Apoc. 15: 2.3.4. [Return to Text]

(38) (Footnote- a disorderly principle of liberty, or an unbounded licentiousness.) [Return to Text]

(39) Margin: Apoc. 6.7. [Return to Text]

(40) Margin: Apoc 9.2. [Return to Text]

(41) (Footnote- The crime of impurity.) [Return to Text]

(42) (Footnote- Noah and his pious Children.) [Return to Text]

(43) Margin: Gen. 9.24. [Return to Text]

(44) Margin: Jefferson's notes on Virg. p. 143. [Return to Text]

(45) (Footnote- The following texts will show that in consequence of Cham's crime and the indignity offered to Noah his aged Parent, a constant hatred always existed between the subsequent generations of Cham, and those of Sem and Japhet. They also show the countries which the descendants of Cham inhabited. "He gave them power to show his signs, and his wonders in the land of Cham." ;> Ps. 104.27. ;= bib cit> "They forgot God who saved them, who had done great things in Egypt, wondrous works in the land of Cham, terrible things in the red sea." ;dir qt> Ps. 105.21.22. ; "And Chanaan begot Sidon his first-born, the Hethite, and the Jebusite, and the Amorrhite, and the Gergesite, the Hevite and Aracite: The Sinite and the Aradian, the Samarite and the Hamathite: and afterwards the families of the Chanaanites were spread abroad. And the limits of the Chanaan were from Sidon as one comes to Gerara even to Gaza, until thou enter. Sodom and Gomorrha, and Adama, and Seboim even to Lesa." Gen 10.15. and etc. ; "And Isaac called Jacob and blessed him, and charged him, saying: take not a wife of the stock of Chanaan." Gen. 28.1. ; "You shall not do according to the custom of the land of Egypt, in which you dwelt; neither should you act according to the manner of the Country of Chanaan, into which I will bring you, nor shall you walk in their ordinances." Levit. 18.3. ; "And they were mingled among the heathens, and learned their works; and served their Idols: and it became a stumbling block to them. And they sacrificed their sons and their daughters to Devils. And they shed innocent blood; the blood of their sons and of their daughters, which they sacrificed to the Idols of Chanaan." Ps. 105.35 and etc. ; "And he said to him: O thou seed of Chanaan, and not of Juda, beauty hath deceived thee, and lust hath perverted thy heart." Dan. 13.56. ; "He is like Chanaan; their is deceitful balance in his hand: he hath loved oppression.";dir qt> Osee 12.7. ; "Wo to you who inhabit the sea coast, O nation of reprobates: the word of the Lord upon you, O Chanaan, the land of the Philistines; I will destroy thee, so that there will not be an Inhabitant." Sophron 2.5. ; "Before him the Ethiopians shall fall down: and his enemies shall lick the ground.";dir qt> Ps. 71.9. ; "If the Ethiopian can change his skin, or the Leopard his spots; you also may do well, when you have learned evil." Jer. 13.23. ; "You Ethiopians also shall be slain with my sword." Sophron 2.12."And they went forth to enter Gador as far as the East side of the valley, to seek pastures for their flocks; and the found fat pastures and very good, and a country spacious and quiet, and fruitful, in which some of the race of Cham had dwelt before." 1 Par. 4.39.40. "And he killed all the first-born in the land of Egypt: the first fruits of all their labour in the tabernacles of Cham." Ps. 77.51. ; "And Israel went into Egypt: and Jacob was a Sojourner in the land of Cham." Ps. 104.23. ;footnote: pages 60-69).[Return to Text]

(46) Notes on Virg. pgs. 143.144.145.[Return to Text]

(47) Margin: Corn. à Lap. in Gen. p. 134.[Return to Text]

(48) Margin: Heb. 10:31.[Return to Text]

(49) Margin: Coloss. 3.11.[Return to Text]

(50) (Footnote- " The explanation of this text, according to the Bhemish Testament, is, "That when we put on the new man by sanctity & grace God makes no distinction between the Jew & Gentile." This text has a strong allusion to Christian Charity; but it cannot be inferred from this text that slavery is unlawful; nor that it is wrong for masters to chastise their slaves; for Soloman says, that we ought not to be ashamed of much correction of Children, nor to make the sides of a wicked Slave to bleed. Ecclesiasticus, Chap. 42.5. (Footnote Pgs 70-71).[Return to Text]

(51) Footnote- quotation of historical study "It is sufficiently obvious that this colour is independent of climate those parts of the body, which are & agreeably to their representatious, always have been perfectly shielded from the action of the rays of the sun, from their youth upward, are, notwithstanding of the same tint with the face which is never covered." Long's Exped. roc. M. V. 1. p. 285. ;footnote).[Return to Text]

(52) Margin: Long's Exped. roc. M.[Return to Text]

(53) Footnote- quotation of historical study +"The hair is coarse, black, glossy & dense upon the head." Long's Exp. roc. M. V. 1. p. 283. "Baldness seems to be unknown, the hair being always retained, however advanced the age of the individual." Long's Exped. ro. Mount. V. 1. p. 259. footnote).[Return to Text]

(54) Footnote- quotation of historical study "The Kaskaias Frike of Indians have long hair. Some of them have a braid behind which is garnished with bits of red cloth, small pieces of tin, & descends nearly to the ground, being sometimes eked out with hair of a horse's tail. Long's Exped. roc. Mount. V. 2. p. 113. ;footnote).[Return to Text]

(55) Margin: Corn. a Lap. in Gen. c. 27.39.[Return to Text]

(56) Margin: Gen. 27.40.[Return to Text]

(57) Margin: Long's Exped.- notes derivative of information.(Return to Text)

(58) Footnote- quotation from historical study> "The Omawhaws offer pottage in sacrifice to their Wahconda (or God) which they intend as impretratory oblation........Having received portions of this Sacrifice, they return thanks to the host in these remarkable words: How-je-ne-ha. How-we-sum-guh. How-na-ga-ha &c. Thank you Father--Thank you younger Brother. Thank you Uncle &c. Long's Exped. roc. Mount. Vol. 1. p. 204. ;footnote).[Return to Text]

(59) Footnote- quotation of historical study "The Indians are very fickle in bargaining. An Indian sometime since exchanged his rifle for Wm. Dougherty's shot-gun: yesterday he reversed the bargain, giving a pair of Mockasins in return. This morning he requested to exchange again, in which he was gratified. Long's Ex. V. 1. p. 185. footnote).[Return to Text]

(60) Margin: Gen 25.23.[Return to Text]

(61) Margin: Gen 25.23.[Return to Text]

(62) Margin: Gen 36.6.[Return to Text]

(63) (Footnote- It appears from different parts of holy Scripture that Esau settled in the country comprehended under the different names of Edom, Idumea, Mount Seir and Amalek, all which lie between the dead sea & the two prongs of the northern and of the red Sea. It lies between the 28deg. & the 31deg. north Latitude, and between 33deg. and 37deg. East Longitude. Mount Horeb is sunk deep in the fork of the red Sea & Mount Sinai is about 1/3 of a degree ;XXX unreadable> --to the north of it.;footnote Pgs. 77-78.)[Return to Text]

(64) Margin: Gen 25.23.[Return to Text]

(65) Margin: Malachias 1. 2. 3. 4.5.[Return to Text]

(66) Margin: Genesis 36. 2,3.[Return to Text]

(67) Margin: Jeremy 49.10.[Return to Text]

(68) Margin: Abdias 6.8.[Return to Text]

(69) Footnote- quote= verse 10. "For the slaughter, and for the iniquity against thy brother Jacob, confusion shall cover thee; and thou shalt perish forever."[Return to Text]

(70) Margin: Deuteronomy 2.4-5, & i. Mac. 5.3.65.[Return to Text]

(71) Margin: Heb. 11.20.[Return to Text]

(72) Margin: Heb. 12.16.[Return to Text]

(73) Margin: Genesis 28.6.[Return to Text]

(74) Margin: Genesis 16.22.[Return to Text]

(75) Margin: Genesis 21.9.[Return to Text]

(76) Margin: Genesis 21.18.[Return to Text]

(77) Margin: Genesis 25.12.[Return to Text]

(78) Margin: Reg. 25.23.[Return to Text]

(79) Margin: Judith 2.13.[Return to Text]

(80) Margin: Genesis 37.25.[Return to Text]

(81) Margin: Jud. 9.24.[Return to Text]

(82) Margin: 1. Par. 2.37, p.86.[Return to Text]

(83) Margin: 1. par. 27.30.[Return to Text]

(84) Margin: Ps. 82.6-7.[Return to Text]

(85) Footnote= That is thy receives this malice from their Father Cham. [Return to Text]

(86) Footnote= On account of their stubborn and perverse will.[Return to Text]

(87) Footnote= From the flood, the beginning, as it were, of a new world, or when Cham Sinned.[Return to Text]

(88) Footnote= This is certainly a mistake- perhaps a typographical error; for no one can drink solids.[Return to Text]

Joseph P. Mobberly, Slavery or Cham, c1818, Maryland Province of Jesuits Papers, Georgtown University Special Collections.