A Diary of Br. Joseph Mobberly, Vol I.



The Pre{s}byterian Rock in George Town. District of Columbia


On leaving Baltimore in 1805 I was requested by a Book-seller to take with me a few subscription papers to engage Subscribers for the Doway Bible. I did so. When I arrived at the College of Geo. Town, I immediately began the work of soliciting subscribers to {the} said Bible as I had promised. The conditions were $8 to Subscribers, & whoever would procure 10 Subscribers & become responsible for the payment, should have a copy gratis


As soon as I arrived, I was informed (and the story was then in free circulation throughout the Town) that a certain Street called the Scotch row has lately been run out my Mr. Geo. Fenwick the Surveyor for the District of Columbia.


Presbyterian Rock


The direction of the street was to be determined by vote - of course there were two parties. Mr. Baulch, the Presbyterian Minister would have it to pass near his house, & having some influence in the town, it was supposed he would gain his point. Mr. Geo. Fenwick, a worthy Catholic, advised Mr. Baulch as a friend, not to vote for the street to run by his house; "for, said he, I know the courses, & should it {run} there, I feel confident, it would go so near your dwelling, that when that hill is cut away, it would fall." "Oh! said the parson, I am founded on a Rock (alluding to the Cath. rock) and can never fall. If God has foreseen & predetermined that it shall fall, it will fall , whether that hill be cut away or not." The votes were taken, & Mr. Baulch triumphed - The hill was cut away, & the Cath. prediction was literally verified for the whole of the western wall fell into the street. The Catholicks then laughed at Mr. Baulch, & frequently observed; "that his rock was melted down."


Presbyterian Church imperfect


After hearing this story, I went to see Mr. Melvin. I knew him, but he knew nothing of me. He was a Merchant- tailor, and a leading member of the Presbyterian congregation in George Town; and so firm in his faith, (in appearance) that, perhaps an Angel could never have drawn him from his purpose. This I knew, and being somewhat mischievour as well as zealous, I thought I would either have a little sport, or make something for the Cath. cause. I found him in his Store flourishing over a piece of cloth in a fashionable style - From 3 to 5 strangers were present - - - "How do you do Mr. Melvin? - I have come to solicit your patronage in favour of a very useful work - It is the Doway Bible which Mat. Carey has lately printed in Philadelphia - I trust you will not refuse to encourage so valuable a work" - Then surveying me with a mixture of surprise & importance in his countenance, he answered: "Why, Sir, I have no less than


Presbyterian Church imperfect

3 bibles in my house already" - "Pray, Sir, what bibles are they?" - "Why, Sir, they are the common protestant bible" - "Oh, Sir, you know that bible is corrupt - consequently worth nothing." - He cast on me a look of indignation, & standing with his arms akimbo, said: "And pray, Sir, on what infallible authority do you build the truth of your Bible?" - "Not, Sir, upon the infallible rock so much boasted of by a certain gentleman of this town a few weeks ago, & which by the by, is melted down+; but upon the infallible authority of the Cath. Church." "But, he replied, you have Bishops in your Church." "Yes, said I, & what of that? have you not Bishops too?" "No, we have none." "You have none, Sir,?" "No." - "Then, how Sir, is your Church governed? Without a head!" - "Yes - every man governs himself; and in this we are happy" - "Then, Sir, your Church must be very perfect, as it has

+ A few weeks after this interview with Mr. Melvin, I happened in town, & saw Mr. Baulche's


Presbyterian Church imperfect

no head to govern it." - "No, Sir, we don't acknowledge any Church to be perfect." - "Then, Sir, your Church cannot be the true Church of God - for St. Paul writing to the Ephesians concerning the Church of Christ, says: it is "a glorious Church, not having spot or wrinkle nor any such thing, but that it should be holy, & without blemish." Ephes. 5.27. "Thus you see the Church of God is without spot or blemish - consequently perfect - But you say that your Church is not perfect - therefore it cannot be the Church of God - I thank you Mr. Melvin for having acknowledged what I wanted to prove - that is, that your Church is false - I hope we shall be friends when I see you again - farewell." Here all his wrath was kindled against me - he gnashed his teeth, clinched his fist, house. All the western end was open, and a huge pile of bricks in the street - He was then living in it.


Presbyterian Church imperfect

raised himself tip-toe, and assuming a loud, harsh sounding and angry tone, exclaimed: "And I wish I may never see you again." Whilst he was thus thundering {out}, I was moving towards the door, for I thought it pru- dent to do so, & glancing my eye at the Strangers, who had been present the whole time, I found they were bending & doubling themselves into many different forms, & splitting their sides with laughter.


A few days after I was told by a Catholic, that he had had the following conversation with my friend Melvin. Mel. "Sir, I met with a very bold, impudent youngster the other day (of your persuasion) who had the impudence to tell me in my own house, that my Bible was corrupt, & my religion false." - Cath. "But Mr. Melvin, I have understood that you acknowledged to that Gentleman that your religion was imperfect?" Mel. "Well, I must own I did, but it was by way of surprise, for I assure you I never intended to make such an acknowledgement. (sic)


The ignorant cannot be saved among Protestants.+


A little after my visit to neighbour Melvin, I though I would try Mr. Baulch, the Presbyterian Minister, & see what success I could meet with there. I went to his house twice, but he was not at home: Some time after, however, he had occasion to see Bp. Neale - I met him in the College yard, & as politely as I knew how, invited him to take a seat on the Porch, observing at the same time, that Bp. Neale would shortly be in. I knew him, but he had no knowledge of me. I opened the conversation by observing, that I had lately arrived from Baltimore with Subscription papers &c. had been at his house twice, but had not been fortunate enough to find him at home. He expressed his regret for having been absent & immediately began to find fault with the translators

+ So says the Protesant principle.


The ignorant cannot be saved among Protestants. *

of holy Writ, observing that there were many places wrongly expressed - "for instance, this sentence which runs thus.....if {I} had had a hand in translating the Scriptures, I would have put it so.....and this sentence thus. .....this word I would have changed because it does not express the author's meaning." &c. All this while I was very attentive, tho' very impatient, & now and then breathed forth a soft hem, as if it were, of disapprobation. As soon as I found an Opportunity, I gave the conversation a turn, by asking an important question, pretending a willingness to be informed concerning certain doctrinal points. Ego: "Sir, in order to be saved, is it necessary that we should be able to make an act of faith?" Parson: "Most undoubtedly so, Sir." "But to enable us to make a proper act of faith, is it not necessary to peruse the Scriptures, & to know them well?" Parson: "Undoubt-

* according {to} the Protestant principle.


No Salvation for the ignorant according to Protestants.

edly so, Sir, for we cannot form an act of faith, except on H. Scripture." Ego: "But how am I to know what Scriptures are true and what are false? I suppose to know this, a person ought to read the works of the holy Fathers & see what they say on the subject?" Parson: "Yes, Sir, this is very necessary." Ego: "Then this being the case Mr. Baulch, what will become of all the poor, ignorant white and black people in the world, who do not know ABC, and who never will know them?" The good old Parson, as if roused from a state of slumber, raising his hands and eyes to heaven, {&} with emotions of compassion blended with those of despair, exclaimed: "Ah! the Lord in heaven knows, for I don't!!!" Ego: "Well, Mr. Baulch, we Catholics are much more happy: for according to our tenets, I can, in a few minutes, teach the most illiterate person how to make an act of faith,


The cunning of Methodist Preachers.

and this act of faith will be sufficient. "My God I believe all the truths thy Holy Catholic Church believes and teaches, because thou hast revealed them." Here the Parson, as if he had stumbled on a bunch of nettles, warmly observed: "Ah, Sir, we don't acknowledge any infallible authority on Earth." Here B. Neal's arrival broke off the conversation, & I returned to my occupations.


Some months after this, Mr. Carey's agent, a warm Methodist Preacher arrived from Philadelphia with several copies of the Doway Bible. His first care was to find out my Subscribers, to deliver the books to them and to receive the money; thus subjecting me to stand accountable to Mr. Carey for the price of 28 copies, and of losing the price of nearly 3 copies to which I was entitled, & which he might have thought proper to pocket. I was not disposed to yield to such manoeuvres - besides I had a partner in the business. I went immediately to find him out, and having met with him {at} a bookstore, demanded of him the remaining number of copies, which he had not yet delivered to {my} subscribers, and a receipt for the money he had already received from them. He hesitated, expressed some dis-


Arrival at St. Inigo's farm.

pleaure, and seemed half determined to give me no satisfaction. I insisted on it, & threatened to seek justice before a magistrate. He at length yielded, and I took his receipt.


After remaining about 6 months at the College in different occupations, I was, in June of 1806 sent to St. Inigo's farm in St. Mary's County. I went down with Rev. F. Francis Neale. I took with me a famous dog called Rockwood, half cur, half grey hound. I promised my self and Rockwood many pleasant rounds in the fields & woodlands of St. Inigo's. he was a good farm dog, & in most instances superior to any thing in the chase.


The only white person we found there, was good F. Sylvester Boarman, an Ex-Jesuit, a worthy man & a very agreeable companion. He received us very kindly, and gave us a cordial welcome; but his being much averse to dogs, was, I thought, a very unpleasant circumstance. Poor Rockwood,


Rockwood's exploits.

tho' faithful & very good natured, had some faults against good manners. He was fond of the house, of sleeping under the bed, & sometimes even on it; & would on almost all occasions, risk his very life for a favourite morsel. Having received his education in the wicked world, & having been tutored by boys who were young and giddy like himself, he had taken up several impolite customs, which are always hard to be overcome. A friend who gave him to me told me his faults as well as his good qualities. His old master, being an industrious planter, commonly took a walk round his corn field every morning, to see if all things were right. The faithful Rockwood must go along - His services had frequently been called for to drive the enemy from the


Rockwood's exploits.

field. One morning the tracks of hogs were seen, & there was some damage done, but no enemy could be found. The master returned, and left his companion, as he supposed, in quest of game. Breakfast came and little Eliza suddenly exclaimed, Oh! Pa, Pa, look yonder at Rockwood! The faithful creature had found the enemy - it was a roguish old sow, which he was then in the act of leading home by the ear. She had been so worried by his rude importunities, that she could not squeal, but now & then puffed out an angry grunt on a low key. Rockwood led her up to the gate, where his master, overjoyed at the sight, relieved him.


Rockwood had now established his reputation: he was every one's favourite, and received the adulations of the family with


Rockwood's Exploits.

many a grateful wag of the tail.


All sat down to breakfast. The Mistress of the table had secreted some biscuits in her pocket for a darling babe, & was then taken up in serving {the} family. Rockwood's appetite was up. He saw there was no chance of his being served, & thought his reputation was now so high, that he might risk a breach of politeness. He therefore thrust his long mouth down to the bottom of the pocket, and drew out a biscuit - this he did with much caution and dexterity, but was unfortunately detected. The frowns of his angry mistress were terrible - but Rock's reputation saved him - every one was willing to intercede for him - All joined in relating his morning's exploit, & even insisted that this act was an exploit, tho' of a new class.- But we will return to St. Inigo's


The first day I {was} much engaged in guarding the door & admonish-


Exploits of Rockwood.

ing Rockwood not to intrude where I was sure he could not be welcome. These lessons were very necessary for him, for I think, of all animals I ever saw, he was the boldest. No numbers could intimidate him, no threats could alarm him; & he was accustomed to march through little armies of strangers with the same unconcern, as if he had been at home. He always seemed conscious of his own powers, & could make war or peace at pleasure, & as it suited his own interest.


The second day a plate of butter was placed on the table for breakfast & Fr. Neale & myself - walk{ed} into the garden - We return -ed in a few minutes, & it was observed that the butter was gone, & the plate appeared pretty clean. Suspicion immediately fell upon poor Rockwood. We went in search of


Rockwood's Exploits.

him, but could not find him, and having given {over} the search, we walked into a private room to wait for breakfast, when behold to our great surprise, we found him coiled up in a comfortable posture on a fine feather bed. He gently raised his head, & looking at us with his usual good nature painted on his countenance, expressed no kind of concern whatever, not supposing that the circumstance of having taken his breakfast befor his Master could be a crime, & as for taking a little repose, it was no more than what nature required after so long a journey. The angry tone of my voice alarmed him - he flew out as with the rapidity of lightening, & being convinced that something was very wrong, behaved with much reserve during the rest of the day. I must remark, that, notwith-


Rockwood's Exploits.

standing his great boldness, he was very humble and respectful towards lawful authority.


The 3d day came, & Rockwood supposing that his breach of good manners was not only forgiven but forgotten too, thought he could venture in again to see how breakfast came on. It was well for him that his faults had been concealed. F. Sylvester with his cane in his hand, accidentally met him at the inner hall door.


His ire swelled in doubling accents hurled, "Why bring such evils on this nether world?" Up-lifted arm, bac{k}ward thrown, forward slung, Bitter reproaches quivered on his tongue. "Wretched elf, darest thou approach so near, To scatter vile pulices there and here? To suck my blood, & on my carcase feed? Begone thou elf; I say begone with speed." He twirled the stick to deal a deadly blow,


Rockwood's Exploits.

But miss'd his aim at the intrepid foe: Ere the blow was spent, struck the trembling floor, He sprung full twenty paces from the door. Poor Caitiff flew with most surprising speed, Full half a rod, or less, or more indeed, Sat on his tail, & roll's his glist'ning eyes And struck all there with wond'rous, great surprise.


Finding there was but little hospitality among the great folks, he went to try his fortune in the culinary apartment. Two ladies of the sable tribe attended. They had long been in the habit of dishing off the meat & setting it on the floor, where it remained until carried to the table in the great house. This practice was very disgusting, as goers and comers frequently passed around & even over it. Rockwood noticed the abuse, & resolved it should not pass unpunished. He watched the favourable moment, and as it was dished, he bore it off


Rockwood's Exploits.

for his own purposes. They soon raised a hue and cry - vengeance was sworn - I stood up for him, declaring that what he had done, was only to teach them cleanliness. Being made ashamed of their filthy practices, they next alledged as a crime, his cunning and surprising swiftness. "Yes, said one of them, drat his blood on him, as I turned my back to take de cabbage fum de pot, he snatched up de meat and runned off wid it - and den when I went arter him, to pay him for it (drat his roguish blood on him I do say) before I could raise de stick, he was away out yander!!! What de debble sort of beece is dat!" Rock was too well accustomed to the motion of the stick, ever to let it reach him. I gave him to understand that the hint he had given the ladies was in perfect order & that he would do well to repeat it, whenever occasion served. After this our dinners were dished off in a


Situation of St. Inigo's farm house.

decent style, and truly Rock hadthe merit of this reform.


I was much pleased with the Situation. The house stands on a convenient point of land, and commands a fine view, of St. Mary's river, the Potomack & an extensive range of hills on the Virginian Shore. St. Mary's river washes the garden bank on the south, & its encroachments for some years back, have been considerable. I was told, that in the time of our ancient Fathers S.J., the garden was 3 or 4 times as large, & extended from 50 to 60 yards in the river. I heard the names of several of the Fathers who had lived there, among whom the Fathers Ashby, Livers and Morris seemed to be the best remembered. They were English gentlemen well informed and of sterling virtue. They took the extraordinary pains to import from England, all their shrubs, fruit trees and garden seeds, and it is said, that they always kept their garden in a very flourishing state.


Situation &c.

The cook, who was called Granny Sucky, & who according to the family records found in the house, was 96 years of age when she died, (tho' she often said she was more than 100) told me that she had had 23 masters, and that she never had had a bad one. he observed that she never had been whipped but once, the occasion of which, was this - One of her masters (the name I do not recollect) was accustomed to retire to an old neglected barn for the purposes of taking the discipline. This, it seems, after some time, was discovered and whispered among the blacks. Sucky was then a girl - She was resolved to see if this statement was true, and therefore followed her master at a distance. She arrived in good time, & peeping through a crevice, found that he had just bared his shoulders & begun his pious work. She immediately screamed aloud, & running to the barn door, begged her


Situation &c.

good master not to be so cruel to himself. She said that she loved her master most cordially, but that on this occasion, he gave her so sound a thrashing, that she was determined never to care much about his self-cruelties in future.


The St. Mary's river empties into the Potomack about 5 miles below the house. In a south {westerly} direction, and on the other side of the river, stands Colonel Fenwick's dwelling. Here the river is said to be 2 1/2 miles wide, but I deem this a mistake, as I do not think it can be more than one and a half. From St. Inigo's house to the Potomac, is supposed to be 5 miles - the distance from said house to the Virginian shore, 12 or 15. At. St. Inigo's house, the St. Mary's river forks - the branch running in a north westerly direction towards its source, retains its proper name, but that which runs in a north easterly course, takes the name of St. Inigo's


Soil. Timbers.

Creek. About 1 or 1 1/2 mile up, this Creek branches out into 5 prongs, 4 of which run up into the land about 1/2 mile. The distance from the mouth of St. Mary's river to point look out where the potomack empties into the Chesapeake bay, is said to be 15 miles. With the exception of the patuxent The St. Mary's river is thought to be the best harbour on the Chesapeake.


The low lands of St. Mary's are generally pretty good, & if properly cultivated, would produce well. On St. Inigo's farm there is black mould from 3 to 5 inches deep - after this, a substratum of stiff clay begins & descends 2 1/2 feet - Next (in many places, not in all) is a layer of sand about 6 inches through, & which in some places, is very fine & white - then the clay recommences & continues.


The long leaf white, & the long leaf yellow pine, the spruce pine, the



white or sweet gum, the black gum, meple, sasafras, pocimmon, white oak, red oak, black & spanish oaks, hickory and chestnut grow there. As that land is favourable to the growth of pines, St. Mary's County will never fail in wood. There are about 2 acres of woodland at St. Inigo's on which the pines are 2 1/2 feet diameter. One of our old men told me that about 40 years ago he assisted in ploughing the corn, and reaping the wheat that grew there; and the corn hills are now so visible, that you can trace the corn rows under the pine chaff. The trees are very tall and from 8 to 15 feet apart. I have seen the like in other parts of St. Mary's. The young pines last only 4 or 5 years in rail timber, but the large old pines continue good about 10 or 12. The largest old pines measure from 3 to 4 feet in diameter, & are from 35 to 40 feet up to the first limb. - Let your field lie fallow - in 6 years it


Timbers &c.

will be covered with young pines as tall as a man - in 10 years they will yield fire wood - in 35 or 40, good rail timber. Masts for pilot boats and large schooners, have often been found in the woodlands of St. Mary's.


The up-lands are extremely barren. The only soil to be found on the surface, is a sort of white or greyish moss half and inch thick - below that, it is all clay - There the dwarf whortleberry, the black jack, and a few scrubby chestnuts strut out & display their importance.

St. Mary's County abounds in game. The rabbit,* the hare, the

[f1] * "The hare is very prolific, breeds 3 or 4 times in the year, & generally brings forth 3 or 4 at a litter. The fecundity of the rabbit is truly astonishing. It breeds 7 times in the year, & generally produces 8 young



for, the opossum & the rackoon - The otter, the muskrat, mink & weasel inhabit the banks {of} the rivers & ponds. The squirrel is very numerous. The lark, quail, robbin, blackbird, ducks of various kinds, the brent goose, wild goose and swan are found there. Seagulls attend the ducks and mix with them.

[at this point, before the start of the next paragraph, Moberley has drawn a line to the left into the margin where the following note appears:]

+ See page 44


The water affords an abundance of good fish; viz. at a time; from which it is calculated that one pair may increase in the course of 4 years to the amazing number of one million, two hundred & seventy four thousand, eight hundred & forty." A. Anderson's Hist. quad. pub. in New York in 1804


Some think that we have not the hare among our rabbits; They can see their mistake in the above History.



Perch, aille-wives, shad, rock and sheep's head. I have also caught some of the following - spanish mackerel, cat herring, fool fish, flounder, skate, Dollar fish and eel.+ The crocus, which is transversely striped, is a very delicious fish, and sometimes very abundant. It was formerly very common, but during our late war, it almost entirely disappeared, & continued to be very scarce so late as the year 1820. The toad fish is pretty common. This is the fisherman's enemy; for as soon as this fish appears, the other fish leave the place. It is armed all over with prickles like the hedgehog - It is thrown on the shore from

[f2]+ All the bones in this little creature {crocus} may be eaten without inconvenience. It is 5 or 6 in. long.



the sein, and hogs and crows prey upon it. When out of the water, it croaks like a frog, & if irritated, swells to a great size - if a stone be thrown upon it, it bursts, & the noise resembles the report of a pistol.


In the proper seasons, the Drum fish and trout are very abundant. I think the drumming season commences when the locust tree blooms in the month of May. The trouting season begins in July, and ends sometime in September. It is not uncommon there, for a man to go out on the trouting grounds at sun set & carry home from 60 to 100 fine trouts at late bed time. There is the greatest abundance of fine crabs and oysters - The Bay turtle, & what is there called the man- a-nose, are not so numerous - The porpoise or sea hog now & then ascends the St. Mary's river in schools. He imitates the foaming


Fish. Climate.

billows in his undulating movements. Now below, now riding on the surface of the deep, he frequently blows as the hog does when frightened, and sometimes throws up water as from a spout, to the height of 10 or 15 feet. He pursues the schools of smaller fish, & will, at times, enter the narrowest coves to overtake them. His mouth is very long and resembles that of a hog. The shark is also seen in those waters.


The smooth and level sur- face of the fields on St. Inigo's farm is here and there interrupted by small rivulets, which before they fall into the river, spread and form little fresh water marshes. These, however, are regularly washed every day by the ebbing & flowing of



the tides which render them clean and healthy. Were it not for this circumstance & the salt air, the inhabitants would have bad health on account of fevers, which would infallibly prevail. Those marshes then stirred up from the bottom with a stick, become so very offensive, that no one can bear to remain over the place so stirred. But the salt tide and salt breezes from the Capes render the inhabitants very healthy. In the spring and autumn, agues and fevers are pretty common, but they are so very mild in their visitation, that no one has reason to take alarm. An emetic & a purgative commonly expel these troublesome visitants; and I have known some who were attacked so slightly, that they continued their occupations, preferring labour to medicine. It is not so on fresh water situations. The Potomac from Geo. Town to a considerable distance up-



wards, is a striking proof of this assertion. On that river, the inhabitants during a great portion of the year, resemble a corpse. There, the ague is very severe in its attacks, is very obstinate, & injures the constitution: whereas, on the salt water, the patient retains a good colour, a strong appetite, his usual strength and a sound constitution.


The health of St. Mary's is ge- nerally very good. I resided at St. Inigoe's about 12 years. I once took the ague & fever - I used purgatives and a little bark without effect. I was at length freed form it by taking the bark only, but in greater quantities. There seems to be something misterious in the cure of this sickness. To let an emetic or a purgative precede the bark, is generally very good and even necessary; but I have sometimes cured it, & seen it cured without any of these. The great secret seems to consist in disappointing the ague at eh pre-



cise time of its attack. I will relate a case. A stranger called to see me one evening on business. The evening was far advanced, and he was obliged to return to his family. Some mischievous boys had stolen his canoe for their own sportive purposes. This circumstance was the cause of his further detention. The poor little man observed in a half passion, that he had to paddle his canoe 1 1/2 miles, and then to walk five, & that at that very time his ague was coming on. I told him I could give him something which I thought would check its progress. I gave him some snake root, alum, and as much rum as I thought his head could bear. By this time his canoe arrived - He took the draught & started immediately. Some months after, I saw him again, & he told me that my medicine had cured,{him} tho' before he took it, he had had the ague & fever for about 18 months. I then classed the circumstances that



attended his cure, & I was led to con- clud{e} that his cure was owing to the combination of the following incidents. 1. His blood was warmed by his being angry with the boys that took his canoe. 2. He took the dose at a seasonable moment. 3. the dose was composed of powerful stimulants. 4. he laboured hard in crossing the river. 5. and lastly, after crossing, he must have walked very fast to avoid the darkness of the night, and the meeting with those nocturnal travellers called hobgoblins.


From my experience in this case and some others of a similar nature, I was led to believe that it was of importance to warm the blood & to brace the system before the chill came on. For this reason, I was resolved to pursue a new plan. Hitherto I had taken a tea spoonful of bark at a dose, an hour intervening between each, & only


Climate. Deaths.

4 does (sic) in the day. Pursuing my new plan, I took two tea spoonfuls at each dose repeating the dose every half hour; {I} took 8 doses in the day, and upon each dose I took a little meat and bread to strengthen the stomach. I took the bark in wine. This plan succeeded, & I have never had to ague since. This, besides a few days of sore throat, was all the sickness I ever had there. I know the place has obtained a bad name in regard of health, but, I think, without reason. A list of the deaths, together with their causes during the 12 years I remained on the farm, will perhaps give a just idea of the health of the place.


Father Spink sent thither from Alexandria congregation, far advanced in consumption; about 28 years old.

Brother Magan sent thither from the college, far advanced in a gallopping consumption; about 20 years old.

John Williams a postulant, {S.J.} sent from the college, having been in a bad state of health for some time - died in 10 days



after his arrival with the slow fever; aged about 17 years.

Two overseers, who were in a bad state of health when they went to the farm.

Mr. Cusick sent from Geo. Town by F. F. Neale - old age {& gravel} - 76 years old.

Negro John sent from the white Marsh. Died with something like the slow fever in 8 days after he was taken. Doctor Jones owned that he knew not his complaint, not having symptoms sufficient to form a correct judgement. aged about 18 years.

Clem, Moses and Cornelius, drowned in crossing the St. Mary's from St. George's Island in a south westerly gale. They took a small canoe & went without {my knowledge} to see their relations - all young men - but one of them married.

Old Jack, supposed to have died with a fit of the cholic which had sometimes visited him in his fits of intoxication. Died in the night on the western bank of Smith's creek, aged 48 years.


Deaths. modes of Cultivation

Enock's wife Betsy died in child-bed with twins - 2 Phisicians attended, Drs Tabbs & son - The Father was eminent, & declared the case to be an impossible one.


name causesyears,m.
Jas. Ritchy (Scotchman) old age 82 - 0
Old Billy fistula in ano. 66 - 0
Old Matthewold age 99 - 6
Old NacyGravel 60 - 0
Old Suckyold age 96 - 0
Lit. Suckyfits - burnt 9 - 0

also about 6 or 8 infants - complaints common to infants. -


Thus in 12 years, and in a family of 60 (blacks & whites) in number, but one sound, healthy man died of fever. All the other deaths were brought on by remote causes.


I was surprised to find the customs of the people and their modes of cultivation, so different from those of Pennsylvania and the west of


modes of Cultivation - economy

Maryland. They seem to have but little or not taste for letters. They have very few men of a liberal education. Their time which should be employed in useful reading, is taken up in visiting, sporting &c. I knew one, & was informed there were some others, who knew not a single letter in the alphabet: & yet they were all very independent men.


Among those that live near the water, many are respectable, industrious, independent and have good farms; while many others, especially of those living on the high lands, are indolent and adhere to their old prejudices, particularly as to the modes of cultivation and economy. - Here is Mr Scratchwell who has a farm of 120 acres producing what is commonly termed poverty-grass or tow-grass. This name tells you what is the quality of the soil. From neglect, it has been washed into gullies. His corn is plan


Modes of Cultivation - Economy.

ted 5 feet each way. In autumn, it gives him 1/2 barrel or a barrel to the acre. This will not support him and his family: But he has made some tobacco, & this will purchase corn and a little sweetening. He has obtained a crop of wool from his sheep, has made some flax & a little cotton. These articles give the family good clothes. His crop of wheat yields 5 or 2, or 1, or 1/2 bushel, or nothing to the acre. This pays taxes, buys a gown for Betsy, some few ornaments for Sally, & sometimes it will afford a cake for the children. He has oxen & horses - To each of the latter, he gives 3 ears of corn twice a day, & as often two small bundles of corn blades; and to the former nothing but wheat straw and corn husks. By this means their lives are commonly saved in winter. They live on tow-grass in summer. - Spring comes - he must commence ploughing - But the horses are skin and bone - they reel as they go - but what then? Necessity compels - plough they must - At it they go. Two


Modes of Cultivation - Economy

hours are enough to make the animal sink under the weight of fatigue. He is turned out to tow-grass in order to recruit. Another effort is made the following day - The animal becomes weaker & weaker, until at length he falls down in the plough through real weakness - This scene is repeated several times. Again he is turned out to graze, & again he is hitched to the plough next day, but again and again he falls, & at length the family must be called to raise him up. - Polly and Betsy take the head, Jimmy the tail, and little Tommy must stand with his whip ready for the word of command - "Now for it - all ready? Heave and set - ho, hy, O, he, ha, hup. - Now try again - and Tommy, lash him well honey, for drat his skin on him he's able enough - Now then - hy, ho, he, hup" - Up


Modes of Cultivation - Economy

he starts, but not without playing them an unpleasant trick - Jimmy being in the rear, was in the greatest danger, and consequently sustained the whole shock - "Yes, drat your blood on ye, that is a sign you are in good heart yet - where there is so much smoke, there must be some fire, & drabbit my skin, if I don't take it out of ye yet." A general burst of laughter takes place, and all it swell again.


October comes - Polly must have a bonnet - she gives Jimmy a hint of it, and at the same time reminds him of his having promised Betsy a new gown for Christmas. Jimmy warmly replies, that he has no means. "You know Betsy we have made very little more wheat than enough to sow." "That's true Jimmy, but you know you have corn a growing - This you can dry in the sun a few days, & it will


Modes &c. - Economy

be fit for use - and I know neighbour Scarcity will buy it of you, for I heard him enquiring for corn the other day." Jimmy is a good natured creature and yields to Betsy's logic. - Christmas approaches - Betsy again urges, "that he ought certainly to lay in provisions for so great a time - some liquors - a little sweetening, and - there - I was near forgetting it, Polly you know must have a pair of morocco shoes." :Now Betsy you know I can't spare no more corn. It sells for only $2-50, and perhaps before next harvest, when I shall have to buy, it will be $3." "Yes Jimmy your reasons are {good} but you can sell your tobacco before next harvest, & with that money you can buy corn: ? so it is better to spare a little more & buy necessaries, which we can't do without." - Polly & Sally join their good mother, & so do all the


Modes of Cultivation. Economy

children; and now good natured Jimmy, not knowing how to chop logic as well as Betsy, is again forced to yield. - Harvest approaches - Jimmy has no more corn - the general cry is corn! What price? $4 a barrel!!! So common is the cry of corn, that even the crows, which are very numerous, have caught the note; and your ears are ever and anon, stunned with the grating sound corn, corn, corn. This buffoonery of the crows has called down the just indignation of the whole country against that impudent, sable race, and a war of extermination has been declared against them by the assembly of Maryland. Whoever shall procure the scalp of a crow & make oath before a magistrate that he lost his life in the county or state, shall be allowed the sum of 12 1/2 cts. in the way of paying his county tax.


Modes of Cultivation - Economy


To see a horse dressed up in the plough, is a little curious & diverting. A small, crooked piece of iron forms the bridle bit. To this is attached a string made of tow or the bark of a tree: this is the headstall. The bridle reins are made of tow or bark, and are used as leading strings. The collar is made of {flags} or corn husks, & is sometimes wrapped with sheep skin or old rags to hinder it from injuring the horse's shoulders. the traces are two low strings - these are attached to two sticks of wood nearly straight, which serve as harnes.


Modes of Cultivation- Economy

Small wrought iron share and a coulter, a small beam, 2 sticks for handles, a short billet of wood called a sword, an a piece of shingle as a mould-board, constitute the plough. Jimmy provides himself with a small pole, to the end of which he ties a long lash of hickory bark with which he can spur on the pony at pleasure. Thus equipped, he is ready for business. The people of St. Mary's prefer ponies, because say they, a little horse eats less than a big one. there is a great advantage in keeping the ponies low in flesh, for Jimmy can hang his own provisions on one hip bone of the animal, and that of the pony on the other, and thus prevent the trouble of going to dinner.




I spoke to several concerning their bad management. There was neighbor Ever-fail whose tenement contained about 70 acres. He had 3 inferior labourers to cultivate the soil, kept 5 horses and 2 oxen for the plough. "Friend, said I, you seem to be working backwards." "How so?" "Why, sir, you keep 5 horses and 2 oxen. The scantity fare which you give to 5, would keep two pretty well. They would do all your riding and ploughing, and your oxen would do your hauling." "Your reasons are good, Sir, but you know we must we must go to Church- besides, Sally and the Children must now and then go to see neighbor Feather-cap, cousin Fil-pot, Aunt Honey-love, and Uncle Three-sheets." "But, friend, consider what you lose- your horses are too weak to plough- you are often obliged to substitute your oxen. One person must drive them, and another must hold the plough. Thus you lose the labour of one hand per day. If you had to hire



this additional hand, you would have to pay 50 cts. per day. Your oxen do only half as much as two good horses would do- If you had to hire your ploughing, and had to give $2 a day for the ox-team and ploughmen, as the ox-team would only do half work, you would a this rate lose $4 in 2 days." "Very true, indeed Sir, but I should never prevail on Sally to understand your reason. I suppose she would as soon part with her eyes, as she would part with them to old mares yander which are sitch tarnal rogues that they eat up almost half that I make." "I think, Sir, you would do well to diminish the number of your horned cattle, your sheep and your hogs. Your numbers exceeed your means." "Ah, Sir, I don't expect I shall ever get out of my old way of living, for if I were to change, I should bring and old house over my head, and I conceive it is better to be poor and to live in peace, than to be rich and unhappy."




When Sally visits cousin Fil-pot, 2 or 3 of the children must go with her to see their dear little cousins and indeed Johnny must go too for fear of accidents; and besides he will have to bring the creature back to ploughing. Sally mounts the old bay-mare, and is firmly seated on the saddle- but the old hag reels- is near falling- "Why drat the cretur what ails her? I am sure she is not so weak , for she took her supper in the cornfield last night." :Sally, hang my old shoes if I think she'll carry you and the children." "O yes she will Johnny, for she's as good ----- as ever was fetched from old England." Now little Rebeccah is seated before on the old hag's neck, and polly is mounted behind. The good mother hold Rebecca, and little Polly cannot fall; for if she lean



to the right, there is a hip bone to catch her, and if she go to the left, there is another to receive her. " O Johnny, can't you give me a better bridle? This old rope is so rotten that I am afraid that it will break." "No Sally, you know I have no other- that's as good as any; and if it should break, we can get some hickory bark as we go along. An old blanket, or gown, or a something is spread over the animal, either for the sake of ornament, or to render the ride more pleasant.-


Now Johnny the old black mare, takes a large handkerchief of peaches before him for the dear little cousins, and little Tommy mounts behind his- but strange to tell the ill- natured old beast will not carry double. She would kick up if she could, but she is too weak- however she reels about, turns round and hunches up her hip bones, and does all she can to throw the riders. " Hold on, Tommy,


Management. Visiting.

honey, I don't think she can do any harm-she is not strong enough to hold these capers long- the old hag becomes quiet, and all start off together. They are sometimes so numerous, and their march is so slow, that at a distance they remind the spectator of an Arabian caravan moving on towards Egypt. Thus they proceed a few miles when Sally's cretur gives out- it falls- poor little Rebecca cries heartily- Polly screams aloud, and Sally pours out a torrent of abuse upon the old mare. "Hush children; you are not hurt- Polly why do you cry and make sitch a noise?" Hush honey, or the runaway negroes will come out of the woods and cut us.- Now they hold a council- Johnny will return, but Sally will not hear of it- She contends that it is not weakness, but downright hippicrissy in the old hag. Sally prevails, and now it is determined


Management. Visiting

that all must walk, at least a small distance- by this time the new corn has operated on the old jades, and they are a little recruited- One mile is gone over and all mount again- they arrive in safety. Much love and many honey words are used on all sides, and Johnny thinks of returning, but cousin Fil-pot will not agree to it. "What! it has been a full month since I saw you, and now you wish to leave me!" "But my plow-" "Don't mention your plow- who plows for me when I visit you? I'll have your horses turned to grass- I have the best grass this year you ever saw- I'm sure it is not less than 3 1/2 inches long! Jim, turn them horses to grass, and Jack, go you and bring up a pot of cider- Susan, you can make a little today for cousin Sally and the children: I believe there is a little white sugar left. I am always overjoyed to see my relations, and Susan, do honey let us have the best things the


Visiting & c.

house will afford. You know there are some hams left- I'll have a lamb killed in the morning, and dear soul, don't forget to have some chickens for cousin Sally is very fond of them. You know I carried a bushel of wheat to the mill some time ago, and dear life can't you have some cakes for the children? In fine, if there be anything wanting, borrow from your neighbors.- 2 or 3 days are spent in good cheer, much love and sincere friendship- Johnny talks of returning home. Cousin Fil-pot insists on his company at least one day longer.- "And there cousin Johnny, dash my buttons, if there don't come cousin Toper with 4 of his family- Mrs Fil-pot observes, that it is in vain to think of going now for she knows that cousin Toper will not let them- cousin Toper and his family enter- Great rejoicing many and various salutations- multiplied inquiries about health and c.-


Visiting & c.

Johnny and Sally spend the week, but they must return for Sunday- Saturday arrives- they mount again; and now the old jades are strong and spirited- They have fed on Cousin Fil-pot's cornfield by day- "Sally do hold that Cretur in, for you know she is a dangerous beast when fat. Johnny and Sally are in fine spirits- They have seen their relations, and enjoyed their good company- They arrive at home with joyful hearts. Johnny examines how matters have gone in his absence- but little or no work has been done- Johnny and Sally have lost a whole week- the pigs have been in the garden and have spoiled it- the hogs broke into the wheat tubs, and destroyed nearly all the crop- Neighbour Dontcare's cattle broke over the fence and did much damage- half the young chickens dies for the want of care- several hens that were


Visiting and c.

sitting left their nest. John Husslecap came 20 miles to pay a debt of $10 which he had owed a long time, but Johnny was not home to receive it- but what of all these trifles? They are not strangers to such losses- besides they are patient and good-natured in the highest degree. So they live, and so they die, and so their children live after them.


Many of the people of St. Mary's are industrious, tho' the great bulk of the people may be said to possess a great share of indolence. There go Sammy Shufflefoot and Dicky Caperwell. They labour only part of nine months in the year. Each of the great festivals, Christmas, Easter and Whitsuntide, afford them one round month of pleasure and pastime. They are fond of dances and during these times, they travel over


Visiting & c.

and extensive settlement in search of balls and frolics. No matter for their domestic concerns- they can put all things right when they return to their respective concerns.


Here comes Billy FairandEasy. He is full of good-nature and it is impossible to put him out of humour- comes to see neighbour, FatSides- commenced conversation by relating some pleasing ancedote- takes a good dinner- exposes the failings of some of his neighbours, but he means no harm, for he does it all in good nature- takes a few glasses of comfort- waits for tea- at nightfall, returns to Nancy and the Children- finds her in a bad humour- indeed she is a terrible scold, and will never let the good natured creature have any peace. She complains that he


Visiting & c.

has been absent the whole day and neglected his family- He tries to make peace- "Yes, you have been feasting with some of the neighbours, and left your family in distress"- He is still a man of peace, and observes "that providence is all-sufficient." "Yes, you had better be more prudent for your children." He takes it all fair and easy- enjoys a good night's repose, and prepares in the morning to visit neighbour Rednose. Nancy gives him a few bitter pills before he starts, but he takes them fair and easy, and intends to work them off with a little brandy. At length Nancy's credit runs out- She owes 4 or 5 bushels, and her neighbours refuse to lend. Billy must absolutely look out for corn. If he cannot buy, at least he must borrow- But first he must en-


Friendly Meetings.

deavour to collect a little money. There are several that owe him- Neighbour Don'tpay, John Won'tpay, Jacob Can'tpay and Moses Neverpay. Certainly among all these he can s'crape up a little. If they have no money, they have corn- Meanwhile he advises Nancy to take the Children and visit Cousin Plenty- He is sure they will be welcome there for one week at least- and - and in their return, they can spend a few days with Uncle Mediocrity- Thus he is ingenious in providing, and nothing can trouble him, for he takes all things fair and easy.


Here and there you meet with a house of entertainment where Sweetjoy is sold in great plenty- Many good folks assemble here during the week- Neighbour Generous will have Mr Bibber to take a bumper- Mr. Free-


Friendly Meetings

hearted treats Mr. Drylips to a pint of first-proof- John Giveall mixes a whole gallon, and calls it first chop. Captain Stingy will not spend his money so- he expects to stumble on a glass by way of accident- Philip Prudence passes by- he will not call- observes that his affairs at home require his strict attention- There come Jno. Tripplewell and Issac Fuddlegood- They will treat all round- Some play at nine pins, some at cards and others pay their respects to Bacchus- One is cupshot- a second is half seas over- a third bousy- a fourth is fuddled and good neighbour Rednose is 3 sheets in the wind. There is Stephen Staggerwell up to his neck in the mud. Himmy Slipgood has fallen upon his head and put his big toe out of joint. Tom-


Friendly Meetings

My thorough-go-nimble has the cholic - Uncle Serious is throwing up and casting down. Ben. Hasty fell into the Goldfinder's shop below stairs and had to call for help - He was taken out as sober as a judge. Israel Braggadocio has his coat off - Wotty But'em bruise'em is squaring at him. "Courage boys - never flinch - Wot, dig him in the short ribs" -- mighty body hits! several rounds! sides bruised - deep scratches - black eyes and bloody noses - Seconds in - sist on a bowl of punch - all hearts agreed - Israel & Wotty drink friends - better friends than ever. - night comes - Geo. Limber-neck, Joe Slipgood & Lewis Go-stumble must stay all night - they can sleep on the floor - their ponies tied to the fence have been gnawing fence rails all day, & they can do the same all night -




They can have their fill of tow grafs when they go home to-morrow.


The day has at length arrived when a President must be chosen - a great concourse of people! Tickets are handed about - great preparations - various treats - Much kindness - The punch begins to operate "Hurra for federalirren" - "I say Hurra for Dimonicrafsy" - "No Dimmicrats: good old times for ever." "No tories, no kings: Libbity &publica-nirren for ever. We Publicans will show fair play" - "Stand back there - mind - Every man to his post - 'I George no man shall impose on me - I'm a Federalist" - "No big words here, Sir - I'm a Dimmicrat: I'll never flinch a single peg-hur - ra for our side - We Publicans for ever" - The poll closes some time in the night - confused him through - out the crowd - much guefsing -



bets run high - Away with Adams and the gag law - Jefferson for ever - grows late - some talk of home - others set off - ponies gnawing fence rails - There are Uncle Suckwell and 5 dozen others stretched along the grafs ---


This is a mysterious night. Hundreds of hobgoblins appear on different routs - 'Neighbor' Filpot is frightened at the crossroads by something like a large ball of fire in the form of a jug, which in passing grazes his nose and burns it - his face will be red for a fortnight. There goes Hugh Swipesey - he sees two ways at once - just saw a black ghost that pursues him - his pony under the lash & in full speed - prays hard and now and again cries out go, Brandy, go. Sticks in the mud - the ghost close behind - prays harder still - Pony falls, and the ghost disappears. Old Toby Bruiser sees a giant 15 1/2



feet high, all over black, no head, but fists clinched - boldly makes up to him - gives him a dreadful body hit - can make no impression, for the giant's skin is as thick, and as tough, and as rough as oak bark - belabours him well, & cautions him not to appears there again to frighten people out of their wits - continues his rout - is very intrepid! - but! - there! - there comes a monster! it is as big as a house! - all over black having a white face, 2 crookers 2 lookers, 4 stiffstanders and whisk about - boldly advances - aims to lay him flat, but the fiend makes a noise like a calf, and vanishes among the bushes. - Dicky Doublesight saw 2 large white ghosts with crooked horns, covered all over with long wool - were as big as his hen house, & groaned & made a noise



like a sheep. - Ruben Rednose saw a great black thing with a round slim tail and a long mouth - made a groaning, grunting noise, and scared his pony to death. - Johnathan See Clear, in passing by a newly cleared field, where the leaves had taken fire and burnt the whole place, saw at least 500 young low, stumpy devils - He saved himself by making good use of his spurs. In fine, the whole county is now filled with witches, wizards, and Devils - they have become so common, that now & then they even appear in the daytime - the women are afraid to go and milk the cows - the children cannot be sent on errands - but little work can be done and a famine is expected!!!




The people of St. Mary's County deserve much credit for their hospitality. They are kind, humane, and polite. A stranger is never in distress when surrounded by generous hearts. It would be difficult to find a county in the Union that displays more benevolent feelings towards strangers and travelers. - A gentleman arrives and has lost his way - the farmer is busy, but the stranger must be served - The plow stops, and neighbor kindness walks or rides 2, 3, 5, or more miles to show him the road. He spurns compensation. - Another is landed from a vessel - his object is to see some person 15, 20, or 25 miles up the county on business - falls in with a wealthy farmer - is promised to be shown the way - "But Sir, you are fatigued: you must take some refreshment & wait for dinner - "



Dinner is passed "Now, Sir, I wish you to see my farm - let us take a little walk." The round is spent so agreeably, that the stranger forgets his intended journey - they return - He must take a night. In the morning, he must not mention his journey until after breakfast - Breakfast is over - "Now, Sir, before you think of your journey, be good enough to tell me in what state you live, what are the customs, & manners of the people, their modes of cultivation, &c." Thus the stranger is insensibly drawn into conversation - but at length, his journey reenters his mind - "Oh! Sir, I must really go - I am under many obligations to you, Sir, for your kindness." --- "Why Sir, Mrs Friendship is now actually employed in preparing a good dinner, & it is principally on your account - When you arrived yesterday, we were



unprepared - you would wound her feelings were you to leave us without accepting of something more than ordinary fare - I propose to take another walk - you have not yet seen my clover field." - The round is repeated - The stranger admires this friendship - he knows not what to think of it - to him, it is a little mysterious - They return & find the table not only richly furnished, but handsomely ornamented according to the best taste - Some near neighbours are collected and partake - various desserts and wine passed round - Much deference is shown to the stranger in conversation - Each neighbour invites him - "Sir, I shall be very glad to see you at my house." - The Stranger with many thanks observes that he has a journey to perform. - " But, Sir, on your return - I hope, Sir you will not leave the county without calling on us." - He now ex-



presses a wish to be on his journey - Mr Friendship observes that it is impossible for him to perform the journey this afternoon, and that of course he must not think of going till the morning - Morning arrives - he must take breakfast. - Breakfast again is passed, & now he obsserves with some anxiety, that his business up the county is urgent, & that he must return for such a day - "Well, Sir, as this is the case, I cannot detain you - but, Sir, you cannot think of going so far on foot - You shall have my house, Sir, and a servant shall accompany you on another house, in order to show you the way." - here the stranger is struck dumb - his grateful feelings arrest his proud of utterance - he is afraid to speak,



lest he should fail in expressing his gratitude in the manner in which he himself conceives it - He at length begs his friend to conceive if possible, the measure of his thankful acknowledgements on this occasion -


O, hospitality, thou heaven-born virtue, how welcome art thou to the wearied traveller! how grateful to the feelings of the lost & benighted stranger! - Where this charming virtue reigns, all other virtues must accompany.-


The waters of St. Mary's yield a variety of luxuries. The great defect is the poverty of the land. that which was always poor, has never been improved. That which was once good, has been greatly injured by improper modes of cultivation. The inhabitants are generally slaveholders, & this at once


accounts (at least in part) for the poverty of the soil. Their slaves must have employment - hence they must cultivate extensive fields which are much too large for their stock of manure - but their people must not only be employed they must also be supported - hence the necessity of the corn & tobacco systems. But will not wheat support them? No - the same land that produces 5 bushels of wheat to the acre will give at least 7 1/2 in corn: nay, the same acre would yield 10 or 12 bushels of corn, if manured in the hill; tho' the same quantity of manure would add but little to the crop of wheat on the same peace of ground. Besides, the wheat crop on poor land is never so sure as the corn crop. The corn crop affords but little provender (indepedently of the grain)


for cattle, & that which is very weak. The tobacco field takes all the manure that can be made. Hence there is none left for the wheat and corn crops - none for meadow lands - Hence cattle food is very scarce - & hence the stock of manure is small & the cattle very poor and weak. "Ubi non sunt boves, proesepe vacuum est: ubi autem plurimae segetes, ibi manifesta est fortitudo bovis." Prov 14.4


But why are so many hands required for the corn & tobacco system? Any planter in Maryland can answer this question. A field twice ploughed & once rolled is prepared for wheat, & by a 3? ploughing the wheat is turned in , & you have no more to do with it - until the next harvest: Whereas to make a crop of corn, you must work


the land 6 times (in St. Mary's) with the plough once with the roller and twice with the hoe, and the repeated replantings which you must give it are equal to another ploughing. Thus the corn crop (I will say nothing of the rolling ) requires 9 workings & the wheat crop but 3/ Then if the farmer require 5 labourers for a wheat crop of 100 acres, the planter will evidently require 15 for a corn crop on the same field-- for, 3 are to 9 as 5 are to 15-- The tobacco crop is commonly said to require more labour & care than the corn crop. -- Draws the contrast between the system followed in the state of Maryland, & that pursued in Pennsylvania. The Planter of Maryland is always reducing his land & bringing



it down to zero;+ Plures non habet bovis, prosepe vacuum est: plurimoe non sunt segetes, nec manifesta est fortitudo bovis. The farmer of Pennsylvanis is always improving his land & putting it in the highest state of cultivations: et ibi plures sunt boves; prosepe plunum est: plurimoe sunt segetes & ibi manifesta est fortitudeo bovis. -- But now tobacco demans a fine price --"I care

[f3] +~ When land produces enough to pay all contingent expenses, and affords the farmer a handsome income, it is said to be good land-- When it only pays for the labour & the necessary expenses incurred, it is certainly equal to zero-- But when it only produces the seed that was sown upon it, it is evidently below zero, & worse than nothing.



not for that, says the Penn. farmer - I know that wheat is low, but it will obtain a living price, and in the mean time I shall not only preserve my land from destruction, but I shall improve it -* I shall

[f4] *It seems to be an established opinion that land is good or bad according to the quantity of nitre which it contains. This being the case, it follows, that those plants injure land most, which contain the inherent power of extracting the greatest quantity of nitre. Take the chestnut tree - perhaps there is no tree in nature that empoverishes land more than this. Throw chestnut wood on the fire, and you can scarcely remain in the room - it sparkles and flies to so great a degree, that your eyes are in danger - hence no one will use this wood, that can do without it. Doubtless the nitre con -



also improve my cattle - I shall carry to market some fine horses and beeves, some hogs, clover seed, and butter - the planter cannot do this - He will have to purchase corn and meat for his multiplied negroes. He has several old men

tained in the wood is the cause of this sparkling. - Throw wheat, rye, or oat straw on the fire and it burns away in a perfect calm - but the stems and stalks of tobacco sputter and evidently show a great quantity of nitre - indeed I have seen the same appearances in the burning of tobacco, that may be discovered in the burning of dead or injured powder. Taking it for granted ( as I believe it generally is ) that corn and tobacco injure land more than many other plants, which we cul



and women now passed labour - He has whole families of negro children and these must eat, and must wear clothes - he must pay the county tax upon every negro over 18 and under 45 years of age. Many of his negroes will be sick, and he must pay the Physician a handsome sum - The midwife must also have her share. The overseer, besides claiming his 300 lbs. of pork, 3 barrels of corn, a good house, a large garden and fire wood ( which must be cut and hauled to his door ) and the privelege of raising poultry, must also have his $150 or $200 in cash. The planter must overlook

tivate, it becomes an undeniable fact, that those plants require much greater portions of manure, than wheat fallows and meadow lands.



his overlooker, and now and then they must quarrel a little. + The Negroes ought to be honest, but now and again Master must lose a pig, a sheep, a goose,

[f5] + I have often heard it remarked that it is difficult to find an honest man; and yet, it is much more so to find a good overseer. Diogenes, with a lantern in his hand, was puzzled in the noon time of day to find a man in the marketplace; what then must be the difficulty in finding a man that is truly calculated for the business of overlooking! Every Employer wishes to have one that is conscientious and honourable and who knows how to show his authority, and to support it under the various trials attending his office; but I doubt if he will ever be able to find such a person. - Here is one that is honest, but he is a drunkard - This man is a sober one, but he is lazy - That man works well,



a turkey, some tobacco, some corn from the field, and perhaps a little wheat from his granary with a long list of et ceteras. Master will complain,

but he will make no one else work - another shows authority, but he has no turn for the office, or he has no experience and is ignorant of the most common things in life. A 5th seems to fill his office well - But his principal view is to raise his name - This he thinks he will do by surpassing his neighbours in crops - for this purpose he breaks through all obstacles - he exposes the peoples' constitutions - drives them night and day, through hot and cold, wet and dry - - The year closes, and he has surpassed all! The multitude declare him to be a wonderful man, & that there is no one like him! But the employer examines, and finds that it will require even more than the surplus of the crops to pay damages. Two or 3 horses have



but he must bear with the times - His horses will be ridden to death at night while he is asleep, but he will not be a good man if he complain of such trifles. If he commence the system

been killed and all the rest are much injured by bad management, bad treatment, and excessive labour - The cattle and sheep are very poor and the employer will have to purchase meat for there are neither hogs nor beeves fit for slaughter - the farming utensils, ploughs, gears, hoes, axes, carts &c. All are wrecked and must be renewed - The fences have been neglected, and it will require a whole year to make all things good - Thus it is plain that only he is a good overlooker, that makes common good crops, keeps everything in good repair, makes some useful improvements, and preserves good order among the people. An overseer may either enrich or ruin his employer.



of whipping, he will from that moment be a very bad man. His plantation utensils will be frequently broken and spoiled from inattention, carelessness or malice; however he ought to meet these accidents with christian patience - In fine, his negroes may rise and put an end to his life.* Such are

[f6] * About 35 years ago, it was very common to hear of murders commited by negroes. At that time, the negroes in Maryland were chiefly Africans, or those who were immediately descended from them. They were skilled in the art of poisoning, and were malicious to a high degree - They have sinced died, and their children have been better brought up than they were. But now another danger is at hand; that of their rising en masse. Several instances have occured in different parts of the union. About 6 years ago they made an attempt at St. Inigo's store in St. Mary's County. Many were whipped, and others were sent to the Penitentiary in Baltimore for 8 years.



the taxes and various expenses which the planter must pay; and such are the trials, vexations and even dangers which he must meet. - I have none of these weighty concerns - My ancestors were industrious: They adopted and pursued with unrelenting ardour the system of farming: they enriched their lands, and they kept them so - They never changed their system, nor will I; because by it they prospered, I have succeeded, and I have no reason to believe, that I shall not succeed in future.+ I now live in

[f7] + The Quaker never changes; and I am peruaded that he never could be induced to change, except by the full approbation of his Elders. I have been in Quaker settlements, and from all that I have seen and learnt concerning their agricultural pursuits, it appears to me that they are united in one, simple, uniform system.



peace and plenty. Were I to change my system and purchase slaves, my land would soon become poor; I should be entangled with many cares, and a thousand vexations would disturb my peace of mind. I want no Overseer - my children are faithful, and the few men whom I have hired, work well - What I shall carry to market independent of any wheat crop will pay more than

They encourage the same breed of horses &c. and the same modes of cultivation - what one sows, they all sow; what one plants, they all plant. They will not have slaves, and in this they are very wise - "Quia filu hujus saeculi prudentiones filius lucis in generatione sua sunt." Luc. 16. 8. May it not be lawful for the children of light to learn wisdom from the children of this world with respect to temporal concerns?



double my expenses; and if I cannot become rich at present, at least I can be independent and happy. When wheat is of a good price, every crop that I make is a fortune." Thus far the Penn. farmer - now hear the Mar. planter. - "I acknowledge that the farmers of Pennsylvania succeed to a wonder - they are the men for rich land, fine horses, fat cattle &c. It is a charming sight to see what fields of clover they have; But we beat them in corn and tobacco - They only raise corn enough to fatten their hogs, and the cultivation of that little they know not how to manage - As to tobacco they are so little acquainted with it, that they do not attempt to make it. I know that corn and tobacco ruin our land, but as long as we hold slaves, we must make those crops. I sincerely regret that slaves were ever introduced into the United States:



but as we have them we know not how to get rid of them. It seems they become more corrupt every year and more discontented in their State of subjection. They are a great tax and a constant aggravation. Many of us do not make corn and meat enough to support them, and are under the necessity of purchasing those articles with our tobacco money: nay, some even contract great debts on this account, and in the end are compelled to sell either land or slaves to discharge them. No wonder the Penn. farmer improves his land and keeps his farm in a state of perfection - He has no tobacco, no corn crops, - thus from the time that his wheat is sown in autumn until the ensuing harvest, he has little or nothing else to do, but to make improve-



ments - We have no time to make those improvements." - - Thus far the Maryl. planter - Let common sense decide which of the two systems ought to be preferred. If the planter change his system, he must first part with his slaves, for slavery, corn and tobacco must go together, as I have hinted above - But if he be resolved to retain his blacks, what will he do with them? The Negroes increase - some plantations have an annual increase of 5 or 6 in number. What will they do with all these a few years hence? Must planters cut down their woodlands and give them room? But they cannot spare their woodlands - then perhaps they will sell their blacks - send them to Georgia or the Carolinas



to become blind in the cultivation of rice, and lose those christian principles which they may have imbibed - to be separated, the wife from her husband, the children from their parents. Is this christianity? And will the Planters of Maryland change their consciences with deeds so shocking to the feelings of a christian, and thus draw down the curse of God upon themselves in their posterity? Forbid it heaven! -


We find it easy to convince a sensible man but it is extremely difficult to change him. We know it is so with respect to those points which concern the soul, and we ought not to expect it will be less so in regard of those that concern the body. How many have grown old in the ways



of heresy, whose minds have often felt the force of conviction, but whose hearts have never yielded to the mild persuasions of truth? To see men thus give up their reason and common sense for the sake of enjoying their darling prejudices, is a sort of mystery in the moral world, & a strong indication of the primitive fall of man. The Planter tho' convinced, loves his old customs and is highly pleased with the erroneous systems of those who have gone before him. He does not reflect upon the many hundreds who have become poor and moved away into the western wilds of America; and who have there become the poor men, and the poor tenants of other States. He does not consider that they have been compelled by necessity to abandon the rich and plentiful markets of Maryland, and to



seek their bread in a dreary wilderness under the many hardships & difficulties which they must encounter who emigrate to an uncivilized and uncultivated soil. Such reflections never enter his mind, nor does he believe that his children will also have to move to some distant state. ---- How different is the case of the Penn. farmer? He and his children are settled for life -- rich land -- no debts -- no slaves & consequently few expenses ---- if he emigrate it will not be from necessity: it will be to enrich himself by purchasing tracts of rich land & settling tenants on them.


War -- St. Inigo's house robbed


I think our war with Great Britain for free trade and sailors' rights, commenced in 1812. I was sent to New York in 1813. The Cath. free school of that city, consisted of 490 boys & girls -- I taught 150 boys, having no assistant. I taught six hours a day, hearing 3 lessons all round in the morning, & in the afternoon. -- also writing & figures -- I was recalled at the end of 12 months by Fr. Grassie, & sent to the White Marsh, where I remained as manager about 3 months, but finding there was little or no good to be done there, I petitioned to be withdrawn. During my stay at the Marsh, Gen. Ross marched to the Capital, burnt it down, & returned to his shipping


War -- St. Inigo's house robbed

in about 5 or 6 days -- Soon after this he made his attack on Baltimore, where he was killed and his men retreated with some losses.


About this time, my petition to leave the Marsh being granted, I was again sent to St. Inigo's farm. The British had been there, & had taken away some cattle and sheep. Prior to their landing F. Francis Neale had sent 42 head of cattle, 62 head of sheep and a very promising young stallion to t he White Marsh for safe keeping -- When I arrived at St. Inigoe's, Commodore Berry (who was commonly called Barry) was then anchored off St. George's Island with his Dragon 74, about 2 frigates and a number of tenders. He was accustomed to sail to the Tangier Islands every fortnight


War -- St. Inigoe's house robbed

& return to St. George's Island for the purpose of procuring wood, water & ship timbers. The Island was strictly guarded both day & night (as long as the ships were riding at anchor) and barges were rowed round it occasionally.


In Oct. of 1814, Cap. Moses Tarlton had left Geo. Town D.C. in a small schooner with some articles for our house, among which was my trunk containing nearly all my clothes. On the 18th of Oct. seeing no enemy in sight we sailed out of Smith's Creek (into which he had gone to hide himself) in order to ascend the St. Mary's. The British Sloop of War Saracen Cap. Alexander Dixie had that morning sailed from the mouth of the Patuxent for the Tangier Islands, and Spying the Schooner, gave chase. The Schooner lost sight of the Saracen by turning into the mouth of St. Mary's, & secreted herself in Dary Cove near St. Inigoe's Church. Towards


War -- St. Inigoe's house robbed

the close of the evening I espied a barge turning Fort Point, and steering direct for the house. + I entreated Father Rantsau to go with me & meet them at the landing. He refused and continued his office observing that "he feared nothing from the British! I

[f8] +They had just then been at the house of one of our tenants, and took several articles. The wife pleaded poverty, her daughter wept, & the officer being softened into pity, ordered his men to restore everything, promising that they might do what they pleased big house. She begged him not to make such promises observing that there was a church in the house, & the inhabitants were good people & c. He replied: "There Madam, you are too poor, & they are too good, so at this rate we are to get nothing -- but madam we must live." he then ordered his men to row him to the big house


War -- St. Inigoe's house robbed

then went by myself with the view of conciliating them as far as I could. Not knowing but that they might rob my person, I first secured my watch & all the money of the house under a decayed sill of the store house. In about ten minutes from the time that I first saw them, they were grounded on the flats. I hailed them from the garden bank, & informed them that they could not run their barge ashore at that place, & directed them to row round to the landing. They seemed to pay no attention to what I said, & that circumstance I thought was a bad omen. Several jumped into the water, some waited to carry the officers ashore, while others ran through the water with drawn swords to the garden bank -- The first that approached, and


War -- St. Inigoe's house robbed

who seemed to be the most eager for plunder, they called Johnny. I saluted him in a friendly manner -- he returned the salute by imitating the snarling of a dog, & without uttering a single word. I then thought that the only shadow of hope left was to address the first officer. He was quickly landed on the bank from the shoulders of a robust seaman. Here I called up all my powers of address, & used all the politeness which I deemed proper on the occasion. He paid no attention to me, nor did he return my salute. Then viewing me with a stern countenance, he said: "Sir I have come with the avowed purpose to burn down this house." I answered: "I am sorry for that, Sir." Then he: "Yes, Sir, the war has


War -- St. Inigoe's house robbed

taking a turn -- your men have lately treated our men ill on the Canada line -- They have commenced burning these & elsewhere besides, I am informed that the Priests here have been active in exciting the militia to fire on our men along shore." I rejoined: "Sir, the war having taken a turn, is a circumstance, for which we are not and cannot be accountable; and as far as the rest, I give my word and honour, Sir, that you have been misinformed -- We are religious men, and have nothing to do with the war -- We have never raised a finger pro or con, & therefore cannot be responsible either for what is past or for what may take place in future." "Then, said he, we will not burn the house -- but let us go."


War -- St. Inigoe's house robbed


At this, several men ran to the house before us. I saw they were intent on plunder, and therefore begged the officer to protect the Revd. Gentleman's room, & not to allow any disrespectful behaviour towards him. He promised that he would take care of those points, and asked me to introduce him -- I did so. -- While he was speaking with Revd. F. Rantrau, I heard a great noise in the chapel, which was then the north eastern room on the first floor. I ran to the spot, and behold! The ciborium containing the B. Sacrament, the chalice, vestments, sacred linens and pictures were taken away -- I ran back to the officer & begged him to interfere -- I observed in him that what we held most sacred the B.S. of the altar &c. had been taken -- entreated him to restore -- promised he would -- we


War -- St. Inigoe's house robbed

ran to the barge, & as we were going, there, Sir, said I, They are now handing the chalice to a bargeman -- do have if restored -- said he would, and because they knew that he saw it, they gave it up -- I then entreated him to restore the ciborium. "Why, said he, what sort of a thing is it?" I described it, for he had not seen it. Then men declared they had it not, & I declared they had taken it away -- Seeing that I could not prevail, I ran to the house, and exclaimed: "Oh Father Rantrau they have taken the B.S. do, for God's sake come & beg for it." He did so, but in vain. The officer told his men, "that everything should be thrown on shore again, if they did not restore the ciborium." They still protested they had it not, & I protested they had taken it -- mean-


War -- St. Inigoe's house robbed

while the officer had some of the vestments and two beds restored. I still insisted on the ciboriums being restored, but to no purpose -- the sailers united in saying they had seen no such thing & told the officers that my intention was to detain them longer in order that our militia might come up and fire on them. Night coming on, the officer pretended to be alarmed & ordered a sailor to take him to the barge. A subaltern officer having no to take him off, remained behind stripping himself to wade -- I observed to him: "Do, Sir, consider what a crime it is to rob a Church!" "Don't talk to me, said he about robbing Churches -- I count this as nothing -- I've seen many a church robbed in Spain." The 1st Lieutenant being then in the barge, I again entreated him to restore -- he turned a deaf ear, and all being ready, ordered his men to row off. The sun was setting. They took about


War -- St. Inigoe's house robbed

10 minures to complete their sacrilegious task. Good Father Rantrau told me after they were gone, that he was almost out of himself with fright & that he never expected such an attack.


During this affair, a big negro (one of their refugees) about 6 feet high, passed my elbow on his way to the barge with my boots in one hand, and my trunk of clothes (which had been landed about an hour) in the other. While the Lieutenant myself were engaged int he chapel & at the barge, the above mentioned Subaltern took that opportunity to rob F. Rantzau of his watch, 2 silver candlesticks that screwed together in form of a box, the silver spoons & his best clothing. I made an estimate of our losses (Though it was impossible to make a correct one) and found that the amount could not be less than


War -- St. Inigoe's house robbed

$1800 supposing the articles to be new. At that time everything was bought at a great price. The cloth making &c. of the coat which I then wore (common good cloth) cost $50 in the Cheap City of New York. They took as follows, Viz the saced vessels &c. which I have already mentioned, besides 2 silver pixes lined with gold containing the B. Sacrament & which were in the ciborium. Those things which Fr. Rantrau lost, 4 beds & furniture, window & bed curtains, my trunk, an alarm clock, a chest of medicine, (which had just been landed) 11 1/2 pr. new shoes a quantity of Cod fish, dishes, plates, knives, forks, spoons, water piggins & many other articles of inferior note.


The next day I observed to Fr. Rantrau, that what the officer had said might be true, that the war might have taken an unfavourable turn,


Measures of precaution for the future

& that if this was the case, I thought it would be prudent to move away the most valuable articles to some place of safety. He rejected the proposal, and said, "that nothing that was under his control should be touched." I made up my mind on the subject, & thought myself bound to secure all that I could & to prepare for the worst. I took two waggon loads of articles that were under my care and deposited them in a ruinous hut in a forest about 5 miles distant placing there a family of faithful servants to guard them. I moved thither the cattle, hogs and salted provisions. The hogs were fattened there. I soon repaired the hut & finished another which had been begun some years before. All things were now secure, & everything seemed to go on pretty well again.


Com. Berry & his Dragon 74


A few days after this attack, Com. Berry anchored off St. George's island, went ashore on St. George's hundred and took away corn, Cattle &c. from the inhabitants. He then sent a-shore for Joseph Code and James Tee, with orders for them to be carried to him on his 74 that he might pay them the ordinary, just price of the property so taken. On their way to the 74 they complained of the late treatment they had met within being deprived of their property. The officer remarked that they had no reason to complain, "for, said he, we are the most honourable enemy you ever had to deal with - we have taken nothing from you yet, that we have not paid for." "Yes, answered Tee, very honourable - very honourable indeed! You robbed the Priests over the way a few days ago; that's very honourbale, very honourable


Com. Berry and Jas. Tee

indeed!!!" The officer hearing this heavy charge, asked Code if there was any foundation for such a report. Code answered in the affirmative & related the history of the robbery, so far as he was aquainted with it.

When on board of the Dragon 74, the Commodore addressed Tee & asked him what he thought of the late visit which he had paid him. Tee replied, "what he knew not what to think of it; that he supposed while he had his hand in the lion's mouth, he must take it out as easily as he could." The Com. then asked Tee, if he thought that he had his hand in the lion's mouth. Tee answered, "no, sir, I do not, but I consider my whole carcass to be in the Dragon's belly." Upon hearing this, the Com. wheeled about upon his heel, & went down into his cabbin.


Flag of Truce

Mr. Code informed the Commodore of our late misfortune. The Commodore expressed his high displeasure, dispatched a letter to the Tangier Islands, ordering Cap. Alexander Dixie to sail immediately to St. George's Island, & to restore every article. -On the 30 Nov. I went to the Quarters at the dawn of day- I saw a something like a small sail stretching over towards the house- I soon discovered it to be a white flag- my heart leaped for joy- I ran for the house- nay I rather flew- when I arrived they were in the act of throwing the beds up on the garden bank. The same officer that robbed us met me & requested me to walk with him into the garden. He then began to express his extreme regret that he ever saw the house. The ris-


Flag of Truce

ing tear made him pause for a moment- Then in brothers accents he exclaimed: "Oh why did I ever come to this house! In doing so I was truly unfortunate! I call God to witness, that I am innocent of this crime. You know, Sir, how much I endeavoured at your request to command my men, but they would not obey. Oh how extremely I regret my ever having come to this house! I, Sir, am to be brother for this affair- in a few days I expect to be sent to England." *

[f9] * He was afterwards deprived of the command of the 1st Lieutenant & put on board of a vessel of an inferior grade- I was informed (I think by Mr. Code) that if Com. Berry had been principle Commander in the Bay, he would have hung this Officer without ceremony- but Com. Berry had a Superior in the Chesapeake & that circumstance saved the robber's neck.


Flag of Truce

With respect to his innocence, I knew from various facts, that he was speaking in the true sincerity of a hypocritical heart; but believing as I did that it was possible he might suffer severely for his misconduct, I sincerely pitied him and was tempted to weep, because I saw him weep.


We then walked into the house, where many articles had already been deposited from the barge- He presented ciborium, at the sight of which I cannot describe my feelings- the office of a Priest was to be performed, but the Priest was not at home. I unhesitatingly recieved the sacred treasure, turned my back upon the officer, fell upon my knees and adored the author of life, who, I supposed was present there. After placing


Some circumstances of the war

it in the tabernacle, (which had been restored on the day of the attack) I returned to the Officer, who observed: that tho' an enemy from necessity, & not bound to generous acts, he was still desirous to prove to me the generosity of a Brit. Officer. He then laid on the table $113 to pay damages, & told me that his name was Wm. Hancock, his resdience, Lower Clapton, England- that if I should ever want any thing from England to write to him, and that he should always be glad to serve me- I thanked him, & we so parted.


In 1813, while I was at New York, the British landed at Point Look Out about 3000 men. They marched 5 miles up the county in detached bodies, and in their return, drove the cattle, sheep and hogs before them to Point


Some circumstances of the war

Look Out. A few weeks prior to this, they had captured several of our smaller vessels on the Chesapeake Bay, some of which they had converted into war schooners & tenders. By some accident they lost one of those vessels, and as if it drifted down the Bay, it grounded on the flats near Point Look Out. It remained there a few days when a British Captain sent a barge ashore to burn it. It seems the neighbours were on the watch & were resolved that they should not burn it with impunity. Mr. L Wily Smith and about 10 or 12 others hastened to the spot with squirrel guns, & sheltering themselves behind an old fence fired on them- 4 were seen to fall- one halloed out that he


Some circumstances of the war

was dead- "D__m it Pat, said another, if you are you need not make such a fuss about it, so as to let everyone know it." They were stung so severely on this occasion, that they rode off without effecting their purpose.


When Admiral Warren landed his 3000 men, some of the officers went to see Mr. Smith and one of them charged him with having been the chief of those that had fired on their men- Mr. Smith: "for God's sake, Sir, who could have told you that?" Officer: "One of the refugees that we have with us." Mr. Smith: "A Negro, Sir? A Negro!" Off."Yes sir." Smith: "Well, for God's sake, Sir, never tell that again, for no Gentleman in these parts


Some circumstances of the war

ever ventures to tell the reports of Negroes." The officer blushed and turned off the conversation.


It was reported on their landing, that they intended to find out all the Irishmen they could, to claim them as British subjects and take them into the service. It is said, they fixed on a Mr. Clarke as an Irishman. He protested that he was not- and officer stepped up and insisted that he was. "Well, Sir, said Clarke, if I thought I had a drop of Irish blood in me, I would bleed myself to death in order to draw it out." This reply raised a great laugh, & they let him off.


In Feb. of 1815 we received the welcome news of peace. The British, however, on the morning



of the same day, went shore at the mouth of Smith's creek, and took 4 or 5 Blacks from George Loker, whom they ever after refused to restore. They also continued to take some wood & timbers from St . George's Island. I engaged 4 respectable men to walk over the Island with me in order to estimate the damages done by the Enemy- they were L Wily Smith, Wm. Herbert, Wm. Evans and George Tarlton. They supposed the damages could not be less than $2000. I sent an estimate of them to F.F. Neale (then at the College at Geo.Town.) that he might have it presented to the British Government. This I did with the distant hope that we should be indemnified, for I had always understood that the British Government uniformly disavowed


Peace. Estimate of damages.

all acts hostile to Churches & Church property. They had set the Island on fire twice- 1st To burn down all the houses in order to deprive our militia of shelter- 2d. To find two of their men who had deserted & hidden themselves in the high grass of the marshes- In this, however, they failed; for one of them had already crossed the St. George's river, & the other lying closely concealed in the grass, suffered one of his fingers to be badly burnt, fearing to move even a finger less he might be discovered. He lay there until they gave over the search, & at night crossed the St. George's in a canoe. Thus the whole Island being burnt twice, all the houses, fences, down wood, & dead, standing trees were reduced to ashes. The young, promising timber trees were also either killed or much injured. The Enemy chose out all the best ship timbers that were on the Island, &


Estimate of Damages

carried them away. The estimate of damages which I sent to F. Neale was carried or sent by the British minister to the Parliament of England: We have, however heard nothing of it yet, tho' 8 years have since elapsed, & perhaps 800 more may pass away before justice will be done; thus showing, that every nation as such, is just & honourable as the times & circumstances may suit it's interest.


Some months after peace was declared, F. Grassie ordered me to repair to the College of George Town. I was employed in teaching the rudiments of the English tongue, in which capacity I remained 18 months. F. Grassie having sailed for Europe, I was again sent to


Negroes taken out of prison

St. Inigoe's to superintend the farm. After a lapse of some months Br. Herd arrived from the College with a letter from Revd. F. Anth. Kohlman (Superior) requesting me to start immediately for Bohemia farm via George Town College. Br. Herd was to act in my place until my return. Revd. F. Jno. Henry who was stationed at Bohemia, found the Blacks so ungoverneable & so corrupt in their morals, that he deemed it better to send them to some distant State, probably supposing that a change of climate, place &c. would produce a change in their morals. He therefore sold 5 of them to a neighbour, who, it seems was in the habit of purchasing Blacks for planters in New Orleans. A little before this, a severe law had been enacted, by the Legislature of Maryland against Kidnappers, who, it seems, had become pretty common on The Eastern Shore. Those Blacks were sent off in the mail Stage down the Chesapeake Bay to some place where they were to be put on board of a vessel


Negroes taken out of prison

for Louisiana. The Stage was arrested in the Town called Centreville by a Methodist who was both a Preacher & a Magistrate, and the Blacks were immediately lodged in Centreville gaol. Father Henry was also to have been arrested as a kidnapper according to the interpretation of the late law. Though F. Henry had obtained permission from his Superior for what he had done, & was supposed to be out of the reach of the late law; yet his friends advised him to retire in order to avoid the disagreeable necessity of attending court- he did so, & I met him at the College on my way to Bohemia. Being informed of the history of this unhappy affair, I was ordered on to Baltimore by my Superiour in order to receive instructions from Fr. Enoch Fenwick then in Baltimore how to proceed. Meanwhile the Fathers knowing that the Methodistic Law for protecting Blacks under the influence of the late law was very high; and not being willing to give even a shade of scandal to those pious souls, deemed it pru-


Negroes released from prison

dent to retain the Blacks and to restore the money to the purchaser. While in Balt. I received from F.E. Fenwick the sum of $1800, whichadded to the Bohemia farm money that I had received at the College, amounted nearly to $2000.


On my arrival at Bohemia I was soon visited by the Brothers of the purchaser. He asked me various questions- "How is this matter determined? Do you intend to retain the negroes? if so, how is my brother to be paid? Have you the money with you? This last question was so bold, and so much out of order, that I felt alarmed- I began to consider the probable danger of my situation- I was in a strange settlement, acquainted with no one and new not what might happen. I gave him evasive answers to his two last questions, observing that his brother need be under no apprehension- that when the negroes should be delivered to me, I would di-


Negroes released from prison

rect his brother to whom he might apply for his money. He urged and repeated his last question. I continued to evade and repeated my answer. After he left me I felt uneasy- I made what preparations I could to meet a more timal attack.- In a few days I went to Centreville, but having left a very useful paper in Baltimore through mistake, and being obliged to wait, I continued on to Haoseph's farm, where I was kindly received by the Rev. Jas. Moynihan. I returned next day and took a night with lawyer Carmikel- I then proceded with Mr. Carmikel to Centreville in order to release the prisoners- according to the time they had been in, their legal prison fees would have amounted to about $.40- but the pious Methodist gooder thought proper to charge me


Breadth of a Methodist conscience

$114- I complained- he alledged that the negroes had had the dysentery, that he had had much trouble with them and that it was a dangerous complaint and I was resolved in any mind not to pay it- I consulted with Mr. Carmikel- he cried out shame! and that it was a gross imposition- but on considering the matter further, he advised me to pay it- for, said he, court detention might cost you much more. I took his advice, freed the Blacks from prison and conducted them to Bohemia.


While at Centreville, I was surrounded by Methodists. Their malice against Fr. Henry was very apparent-I declined giving any satisfactory answers to their enquiries knowing full well that they were by no means disposed to give credit to any thing that could be said in


Great learning amongst M. Preachers

favor of Fr. Henry. The Magistrate that arrested the stage, was not only a Preacher but also a storekeeper- He pretended to be a man of very extensive reading- He asked me if St. Augustine was not a Calvinist- I answered no- he insisted that he was- "Sir, said I, that is impossible because St. Augustine lived several centuries before Calvin was born"- He continued to urge that he was, and repeated his assertion several times- I repeated my answers, and endeavored to show him that it was impossible, but without effect- I then turned my back upon him and walked out his store, blaming myself for having indulged so lazzy in conversing with a methodistic Ninnyhammer.


Settled with Purchaser-


My next care was to settle with the Purchaser- besides the stipulated sum which he had given for the Blacks, he demanded payment for his trouble and expenses in sending the negroes to Centreville- and lastly, he thought he ought to receive a little for disappointment. I had heard of his pretentions before, and had taken Mr. Carmikel's opinion on the subject. I informed him that I was not authorised to to do any thing more than to release the people from prison and to return the money which he had paid for the people.


After this I sent some corn and wheat to Baltimore to obtain money for the payment of debts. I think I paid $300 in discharging the debts of the farm, and left about $150 of debt to be discharged. I assured our Creditors they should be paid by a person, who in a few days would succeed me. I then wrote to my Superior,


I leave Bohemia for St. Inigo's

informing him that the work was finished for which I had been sent, and entreated him to recall from a settlement tainted with various heresies and stained with every kind. I had been deprived of Mass about 7 weeks, and being surrounded by Quakers and Methodists, I know not what danger I might be in according to the ancient proverb: "Evil communications corrupts good manners." I was doing what I could for the farm, when after a few days I was relieved by a letter from Fr. Anth. Kohlman. I returned to St. Inigo's via Geo. T. College leaving with Superiors correct statements of all of my transactions at Bohemia. On my arrival at St. Inigo's I found that good Br. Heard had been doing all that could have been done by faithful and judicious farmer.


About this time I saw 3 water


Water Spouts

Spouts. One large column and two smaller ones ascended to a considerable height, united with a very small, insignificant cloud- the cloud thickened and became very dark- after momentary Suspension it bursts and a terrific roar like that of a distant storm succeeded, and the rain immediatly fell in torrents. The longest column (at the distance of ten miles) appeared to me to be about a foot and a half in diameter- the other two were not much left, but were left dark and dense. The rain seemed to extend over a few acres only, and every where else the sky was serene and clear. The distance between the columns appeared to be about two feet. This phenomenon took place about the middle of the Potomac river, between St. Inigo's house and the Virginian shore.


Phamplet War


In the year 1818 or 19 a dipute took place between Father Leonard Edlin of New Town, Mr. Jno. Brady a protestant minister then living at the head of St. Mary's River. Fr. Edlin had received or taken some protestant bibles from certain members of his Congregation, and had threatened to burn them. This reached Mr. Brady's ears, who blazing with zeal published Fr. Edlin in the oublic papers. This caused a phamplet war. Mr. Brady in one of his phamplets was pleased to assert that: "a certain lay-brother in St. Mary's had declared that all those who were not Catholick's, would go to hell." It seemed to be generally believed that I was the person. In order to free myself from the assertion and to establish peace so far as I could, I wrote to my Superior and obtained leave of him to write a friendly, conciliating letter to Mr. Brady- It


Letter to Parson Brady.

follows verbatum. [p68]

Dear Sir,

I have read your pamphlet detailing, the differences existing, between you and the Rev. Leonard Edlin- In that peace you have criminated a certain lay Brother of St. Mary's county. I was informed that I was the person alluded to- I would not believe it, as I knew that such an expression never fell from my lips- no, not in the course of my whole life. But, the public opinion, it seems has fixed on me, and I must therefore bear the lash of public censure, public Deism. Had you named the guilty person, you would have done much better: but, Sir, you have left it to the public to judge, and


Letter to Parson Brady

to judge rashly: this,to say the best of it is not charity. However I will not retort by criminating you. I leave the matter to God and your own conscience, and I presume you were only guilty of a mere momentary error when that sentence dropped from your pen. My Dr. Sir, we all have our unguarded moments-an irrefragable argument that we are all fallible when taken individually. No doubt you were informed that such an expression was used: but, Sir, you ought never to take up vague rumors to support your cause- Why? because misconceptions, misrepresentions will occur in the circle of life. We are all prone to err- omnis homo menden. All that I have ever said in public, amounts to this.-There is but one God- Ussus Dominus-and consequently there can be but one religion.- Jesus


Letter to Parson Brady

Christ never made but one. Una fides, unam Baptisma.his being so , every man is bound in conscience and under pain of the eternal loss of his soul to embrace that one Religion which J.C. has established wherever he finds it, and knows it to be the religion of J.Christ; since whoever refuses obedience to God, is out of the way to Salvation. Now I hold, and have ever held , that the Br. Cath and Apostolic Church, is that Church which Christ established, and which he has promised shall never err, never fail, and that he himself will abide with her for ever.Et poste inferi non praevalebunt adversus eam.... Cum autem venerit ille spiritus veritatis, docebit vos omnem veritatem.... et ecce ego vobiscum sum omnibus diebus usque ad consummationem seculi.


Letter to Parson Brady

I morever hold that no man, who knowlingly, willingly, and obstinately refuses to his last breath to adhere to the Church of J. Christ after discerning it to be such, can ever obtain salvation. --These, Sir are the doctrines which I have thought in public and on the high ways, + & being a christian, as you certainly are I trust you will give me your hand, and sign you name to the said doctrines. -- Seeing then that I deny the charge put forth in you pamphlet, I request you my Dr Sir, to do me justice & correct that error as opportunity & convenience may serve. With sentiments of esteem, I remain you Obt. Humb. Servt.

J. P. Mobberly

[f10] + Mr. Brady advanced in his pamphlet that the lay Brother had taught in public and on the high ways, that all who were not Catholic would go to hell.


I again leave St. Inigo's Farm


After the above letter, Mr. Brady in stead of doing me justice, obtained a certifacte from a Methodist showing that such an expression had been used by me, & inserted it together with my name in his next pamphlet. But the author of the certificate was too low a character to be believed by the respectable class of protestants, and I therefore let the matter pass in silence.


In 1820 being disgusted with the place on account of the repeated slanders and misrepresentations which were thrown out against me by those from whom I had always expected better things, I wrote several letters to Fr. Anth. Kohlman the Superior, begging him to freeeme from the burden of Manager. I at length succeeded, & having settled my affaris, I again left that farm, & by the order of my Superior stopped at St. Thomas' Manor to be employed under Fr Francis Neale who was then Principal there in union with his Bro-


I settle at St. Thomas' manor

ther Charles. The people of that farm werw then in great want of good water, 7 with Fr Neale's approval I dug a well 26 feet deep & walled it up with bricks. The water was found to be excellent, & Fr. Francis Neale purchased a good pump for it to sucrue it from filth. Having remained at St. Thomas about two months, Fr. Kohlman paid us a visit, & I was again ordered to the College, at which I arrived about the first of Sep. and took my old stand in the class of Rudiments.


A little before the British burnt the Capital, the inhabitants of St. Mary's sent to President Madison, complaining of their exposed situation, & solicted his aid and protection. It is said that he returned for answer: "It cannot be expected, that I can defend every man's turnip patch in St. Mary's County."


The Enemy in the Corn field

Finding they could not depend on Government for assistance some of them removed their Blacks to Washington County to prevent their rising or eloping to the Enemy- On their way to Washington County, they were reviled and abused by many, especially those in and round Washington City, and treated as cowards for not having defended their Country. When the inhabitants of St. Mary's understood that the Enemy was in Washington City, they observed that "the Enemy was not in the turnip patch then, but in the corn field."


State of the farm when I left it

Having obtained leave of Revd. Father Anthony Kohlman to leave the office of manager on St. Inigo's farm, I deemed it prudent to take with me a statement of the situation in which I was about to leave the said farm.

[p72]The statement follows.

Chickens. . . . . . . . . .158
Puddle Ducks. . . . . . . . . .77
Muscovy Ducks. . . . . . . . . .7
Geese. . . . . . . . . .26
Turkeys. . . . . . . . . .49
Hogs. . . . . . . . . .125
Horned cattle. . . . . . . . . .115
Sheep. . . . . . . . . .286
Young colts. . . (horse colts). . . . . . . 2
Colts of 2 years. . . . . . . . . .1
Horses of 18 years. . . . . . . . . .1
Do. of 15 years. . . . . . . . . .1
Do. of 12 years. . . . . . . . . .3
Horses under 10 years. . . . . . . . . .13
Black people - old & young. . . . . . . . . .56


State of the farm when I left it

[p73] Debts due St. Inigo's farm. Deb
Robt. Price for a tree on the Island $4~0cts
Lewis Smith for Smith's work-------- 5~20 1/2
L Wily Smith for the hire of a scow - 4~0
Jno. Price for Smith's work ---------- 1~30 1/2
Sam. Gipson for rent ------------------ 77~41 1/2
Griffin Herbert for rent --------------- 346~00
Ben. Fenwick (pilot) for d.o -------- 67~20
505~12 1/2

[p74] Debts due others. Contra - Cr
County tax ---------------------- $70~00cts
Michael Roan for a horse & c. 72~00
Norman Martin for a horse --- 50~00
Hen. Norris for overlooking -- 48~85
Revd. Jos. Carbery (Pastor) -- 98~12 1/2
Mr. Wm. Herbert ---------------- 18~00
Mr. Mack for plastering & c.- 21~50
Mr. Jno. Berry for overlooking 20~77 1/2

omitted thro' mistake --8~00

Bal. due in favor of the farm -97~87 1/2


State of the farm when I left it

Large patent iron mould board ploughs - 6
Smaller common long points --------------- 17
Waggons --------------------------------------- 3
Ox Carts ----------------------------------------- 3
Horse Do. --------------------------------------- 1

[p75] Gear for waggons, carts and ploughs in good order. Among the horses was a very fine Stallion. 6 were breeding mares, 3 of which were 15 1/2 hands high, and said by a Gentleman from Allegany County to be 3 of the best he had seen in the State of Maryland. 5 of the horses were large, the rest were of common size, except one which is as very small, tho' very good. Among the horned cattle were 12 working oxen.

[p76] Bushels of rye -------------------------- 80
Hogsheads of tobacco --------------- 4
A very fine crop of flax --------------


State of the farm when I left it

Bushels of wheat sowed ------------- 223 1/2


The two young horse colts were from a fine full blooded Virginian horse Oscar ----- 4 of the mares were supposed to be with foal again by a large 1/2 blooded horse -- When I speak of a Statement of St. Inigo's farm, I mean the home farm & the two smaller farms which were then attached to the home farm. I left the farm about the 1st of June 1820 ----------


I left about 220 Barrels of Indian corn for the support of the farm & much more bacon, pickles, pork & corned beef than was necessary for the people, allowing 2. lbs to each working hand per week. When I first went to the farm, the people had never been allowed more than 1 1/2 lbs. for each labourer per week -- After some years as I found we had an abundance, I raised it to 2 lbs. per week.


State of the farm when I left it

One peck of meal a little heaped was always allowed each labourer per week and a half peck to children. Old people who were passed labour were allowed as much per week as a labourer. One peck per week was always found to be a plenty, and some of them did not use it all. What they did not use was preserved for the raising of poultry. Each family was allowed to have a good garden, its extent being in proportion to the family. They raised cabbages, cotton & c. but their chief crop was in sweet potatoes. + (of these a family commonly raised

[f11] +Doctor Tabbs Junior of St. M. Cty formerly observed to me that sweet potatoes are so pernicious to health that he was strongly opposed to them, & was determined that not one should ever be raised on his farm. I find that the same opinion is put forth in Major Long's expedition to the Rocky Mountains, and


State of the farm when I left it

from 30 to 50 bushels. They were sold at $1.$1.25 cts., and sometimes at $1.50 cts. per bushel. Each family generally raised 100, 150, or 200 chickens, which they sold at 25 cts. each, seldom at a lower price. They were in the habit of selling some cabbages & a great many eggs. They also, in defiance of authority, gathered oysters on sundays and holidays which they sold to ships & c. The father of each family generally made from $80 to $100 per Annum. This was clear gain to him, as he depended entirely on the manager for working clothes and provisions. Each labourer received

[f12] I have taken notice that aques & fevers commenced on St. Inigo's farm, when the people began to eat their sweet potatoes. During the noviciate the white family amounted to 17 in number -- at other times, it frequently amounted to 5 or 6. Yet but two cases of aque and fever ever


State of the farm when I left it

from the farm for summer, 2 shirts, and one pr. of double soaled shoes, one pr. of stockings, one pr. of pantaloons and a round-about coat, all made on the farm from the crops of wool and flax. --The women received 2 shifts and 1 habit for summer, and for winter 1 pr. of double soaled shoes, 1 pr. stockings, 1 petticoat, & 1 short gown. Hats & sunday

appeared there in the white family, in the course of 12 years, and they arose from imprudent exposure. The sweet potatoes seldom or never appeared on our table, but the Irish potatoe was in common use the whole year, with the exception of 2 or 3 months. However, I do not think that Black will be easily brought over to the above opinion. They love money & they love the Sweet potatoe. If they sicken, Master must cure them, for their uniform doctrine is: "Master's property -- master's loss." In judging, their criterion is not reason, but sense. They do not act from principle.


State of the farm when I left it

app al, they provided with their own funds. When sick they were served with medicine from the house by the Manager & furnished with sugar, tea & c. if necessary. In extraordinary cases a Physician was called in, & all possible attention paid them in their illness.

(Click on map for a larger image.)


State of the farm when I left it


Explanation -- The dwelling house door looks due south. The road running from the dwelling house extends due East -- The dotted lines show the roads -- The double lines show the double ditches -- The trees show a line of locust trees planted by Revd. F. Walton -- According to the statement I have given, there were when I went to the farm 2040 yds. of old ditch. I made 2260 yds. more. For good reason, having consulted the overseer & old people of the farm, I filled up 60 yds. of old ditch & 200 yds. of the new ditches which I had made. The Brick barn was built by F. Francis Neale before I went down, but not quite finished. A new stable was built at the quarters by Br. Jos. Marshal when I was teaching at the College under F. Grassie. The Windmill, Miller's house, weaving house, cow house, hen house and Smith's shop


Crops made on St. Inigo's farm

were built in my time.


The greatest crops we ever made on St. Inigo's home farm during my time, were 400 barrels of Indian corn, 1200 bushels of wheat, some oats & rye for the horses, clover hay, flax, 300 bushels of turnips, 400 bushels of Irish potatoes, 6000 lbs. pork and 1200 lbs. of beef.


Having two small farms attached to the home farm, our greatest crop amounted to 2020 bushels of wheat, 600 barrels of Corn, 11000 lbs. of pork, 2000 lbs. of beef and mutton & c. & c. We commonly sent to the College of George Town every year produce to the amount of $1850 and received in return from 4 to $500 in the different articles that were necessary for the house & farm.


How we paid our debts


When we had clover fields on the home farm, 19 miilch [strike through second i] cows usually gave 30 gallons of milk pr. day during the summer season.


We did some Smith's work for neighbours, let our Stallion stand on the farm, sold some corn, received the rent from the tenements and by these means we paid our debts -- Our annual taxes were from $80 to $100 -- a few years after the war took place, our taxes amounted to from $160 to $198.50 cts. owing to a direct tax which was added to the county tax. During the life time of the Revd. Wm. DeBossey, Pastor of St. Nicholas' Congregation, we paid him $80 pr. Annum, & after his death we had to pay the Pastor of St. Inigo's Congregation the same sum.


What the farm expends for the Blacks


I formerly made a calculation of what the farm expended in the support of the Blacks -- the amount of that year was more than $1800 -- I repeated the calculation a few years after, & found that it exceeded $2000. I allowed a common, fair price for every article, viz. Bread, meat, clothing, house rent, gardens, firewood & c. & c. descending to the smallest particulars. Having duly considered all things, I then thought as I do now, that the farm would do much better without them than with them.


Exclude the Blacks & the corn system: take in 5 or 6 apprentice boys to the farming business: hire 2 or three strong men that understand farming: manage well, & be assured that as good or better wheat crops will be made on the farm then, than can be made under the present system. -- The


Possible arrangements

above plan would do well, but the following would do much better.


Apportion out the land and farms: build good, durable houses: engage respectable tenants, and the annual income will be much greater than it can be under the present system. --Having no Blacks the expenses would be very few: making little or no corn the land would soon become rich -- or according to the last plan, having nothing more to do than to receive the rents from the tenements, all troubles, cares and vexations would vanish.


As slaves are very discontented in their present state of servitude, & are becoming more corrupt and more worthless every year, I do not think that planters can ever succeed well under the prevailing system.


Lenient measures towards slaves


Some years ago Blacks were more easily kept in due subordination, and were more patient under the rod of correction, than they are now, because then discipline flourished, but now it is going to decay. The present white generation seem to lose sight of the old observation "the better a negro is treated, the worse he becomes." It is [may be -- struck out] said that the experimental truth of the above observation gave rise to the following lines.
"Tender handed brush a nettle,
And it stings you for you pains;
Grasp it like a man of mettle,
And as silk it soft remains:
It is the case with common natures,
Treat them kindly, they rebel;
But be rough as nutmeg grates,
And the rogues obey you well."


Masters must answer for their slaves


1. For exposing the lives of their slaves by not providing them with beds & comfortable houses.

2. -- Permitting whole families of children without regard to sex, to sleep in the same bed, by which means they become corrupt in their tender years.

3. -- Not providing them with necessary food and raiment & thus refusing to pay their labourers their wages -- a sin crying to heaven for vengence.

4. -- Not permitting them to marry.

5. -- Not instructing them in their christian duty, so as to prepare them properly for the sacraments.

6. -- Not compelling them by proper means to perform their christian duties.

7. -- Not restraining them in their evil courses & not caring to chastise them for their immoral conduct.

8. -- Using cruel methods is correcting them.


Masters must answer for their slaves

9. -- Neglecting them in sickeness and old age.

10. -- Selling them under grievous circumstances and separating man and wife.


How many masters will infallibly be lost for the commission of the above crimes? In this life, they are empoverished by keeping slaves: their lives are filled with cares & vexations: their prospects of happiness are marred & when they die, they lose all for ever! Who then would possess a Slave?




This must be inserted at the + at p. 25

The feathered tribe that have colder blood
Expand their wings full o'er the bring flood
Now sailing fast, the ruffl'd billows sweep
And now they plunge into the rolling deep.

The fishing hawk that soars aloft on high
And mounting slow, rests buoyant in the sky
With piercing eye, beholds her prey below,
And studies how to give the fatal blow.

She looks for rock, for herring, eels or trout
But finding none, and wheeling short about
She further seeks and still the coast explores
Until she sees them dart along the shores.

Now pois'd on pinions, mounting high in air,
She braves the strength of sol's overpow'ring glare;
Her talons new'd, she knows her young complain
Which makes her eager yet to dip into the main.

Thus quite prepar'd, incumbent o'er the deep
She takes true aim, and looking down the steep,
As quick as light'ning, darts up on her prey
The waves divide, and dash the silver spray.


Not always right, she sometimes strikes in vain,
But full of hope, she mounts, & strikes again;
Her stelled claws now pierce his finny sides
And rising up, she grapples on the tides.

Sometimes the flouncing, strong & struggling prey
Is much too stout, & bears his foe away
T'explore the wat'ry wilds, to pine & gasp for breath
And run her sinful sprite into the arms of death.

But when triumphant o'er the swimmer's soul
She holds him fast, & under her control.
Then soaring up, ascends in liquid sky
And points her way to where her young ones cry.

Thus moving on, she bears her fishy food,
Which she intends shall feed her tender brood:
The wat'ry captive struggles, but in vain
And panting, gasping, dies in greater pain.

While she thus provident her young to feed
Returning home with more than light'ning speed
Now finds a foe has dared to assail her nest
Of vilest rackoon tribe he stands confess'd.

Now stung with rage her mad revenge to serve
She swells with ire and arms her ev'ry nerve
Then pouncing down with fierce terrific might
Engages him in hard conteding fight.


The combat long, it reddens with their gore
And bruis'd & scratch'd they bleed at ev'ry pore
Maternal love does more than stubborn strength
She hurls him down & measures out his length.

Now, christian parents, learn & parents care
From simple nature roughly painted here
And teach you children with a mother's love
To be as harmless as the turtle dove.

The world is wide, replete with thorny ways,
In which your babes must spend their mortal days;
Temptation's waves, as raging billows, roll
T'invade the heart, and to corrupt the soul.

The infernal fiend that always hates the truth
Is ever active in decieving youth:
He spreads his nets and lays his hidden snares
To ruin youth and spoil their tender years.

To you, in trust, the Lord has deigned to give --
The tender offspring that for heaven live
Be mindful then to meet your sacred trust
And never fail to do what's right & just.

Defend their morals, guard their infant years
Protect the wheat, but root up sinful tares
"The motions unto ill at first withstand
The cure's too late when vice has got command."


Thoughts on Sheep

Be not deceived your love is just & true
When you, for virtue, give them what is due;
Be therefore prudent, never spare the rod
But follow reason, bring them up for God.


Of all quadrupeds, the sheep is commonly considered the most innocent. Hence in contemplating this animal we have an association of pleasing ideas, which end to soften the asperity of natural impulse and to excite feelings of kindness & benevolence. It was probably from viewing this harmless creature that similar sensations werew created in the shepards of old by which they were prompted to chant their friendly lays, and to cultivate peace with all around them. But if such was the case when paganism stalked amain, what ought it to be under the influence of grace? How grand, how noble the association of ideas at the Savior's Birth! The Prince of peace disdain-


Thoughts on Sheep

ing the pride of the rich, is visited by poor and humble shepards! The shepards were keeping watch over their flocks, when invited by Angels to adore the new-borm King-- Behold the Lamb of God! he comes not to destroy, but to save -- he comes to take away our sins. To give us an idea of his meekness, he is again and again compared to a sheep that goes to the slaughter without opening its mouth to complain! This assemblage of pious and pleasing recollections cannot fail to excite sentiments of tenderness, benevolence & devotion in the christian heart.


The wants and necessities of man are, perhaps, more abundantly supplied by the usefulness of this, than by that of any other animal. It gives us food and raiment -- It affords a most wholesome & agreeable repast, & defends us from the searching blasts of winter.


Observations on sheep


It is something strange that we do not attend more to our flocks, than we generally do. The sheep, tho' the cheapest & most useful off all our domestic animals, seems to be the most neglected. It is slighted to so great a degree, that, in Maryland, many take no notice of it at all, execept when they want the fleece, and when the necessities of their table demand it. It is from a want of care and attention, that so many of ail, or sucees so badly in the raising of sheep. They fail in regard of size and number, if not in quality.


During the time I resided on St. Inigo's farm I had a great desire to raise sheep, was very little acquainted with them. I pursued the customs of my neighbours abandoning my own opinion, that formed (I thought) on the dictates of reason. I therefore failed to a great degree-I was told that sheep would do very well without being fed during win


Observations on sheep

ter, except in time of snow, when a few corn blades were quite sufficient- that Indian corn would give them a complaint called the rot & make them lose their wool, and that the salt water was sufficient for them without giving them salt. The consequences were fatal- the sheep were extremely poor at the approach of spring; they lost great quantities of their wool; the dams being lambs in their infant state; and in a flock of 80 or 90, between 25 and 36 died annually, and about the same number of lambs.


These repeated losses induced one to adopt as system of my own. I turned shepherd- I fed them every day during winter with Indian corn or cornmeal- Towards the spring I fed them twice a day to render them twice a day to render them strong for beinging forth, and to make them more gentle- I result of treatment was


Observsations on Sheep

happy- The ewes brought forth with vigor, and the lambs stood forth in strenght far from losing their wool, they retained it.*


The following cases show the necessity of a Shepherd, particularly in yeaning time.


In visiting the flock one morning I found a ewe caressing her lamb. At my approach she withdren a few paces,& gave me dumb signs of her having another in family, but from this the vital spark had fled. A day or two after I espied another that had just dropped a lamb-On

[f12] * The horse, cow, hog, dog &c. When well fed, lose their coats in spring, because not necessary for us; whereas the sheep, when treated well, retains its wool to supply the wants of man- Hence we ought to admire the goodness of Providence!


Observations on Sheep

examination I found she had a second- both were alive, and at the distance of about 8 yards from one another_ The expressed some concern at any arrival & I saw that her attention was divided. The first that came had by self-exertion & maternal caresses been disenaged from the membrance in which it had been eneveloped & was doing well, but the second was yet imprisoned. I stood off at a distance to await the result. The was almost constantly employed in running backwards & forwards from the one to the other. Whenever she came to the first, she caressed it for a moment, and immediately returned to the second or last yeaned_ After a few such visits to the second, finding that it could not extricate itself, she ran at it, I butting it, knocked it down. Seeing this repeated once or twice, I ran up to res-


Observations on sheep

cue it from her unnatural fury, and gently breaking the membrane with my cane it soon sprung upon it, feet_ Then casting a grateful look at me, it seemed to wish me well. I called for help, tied the ewe, & compelled her tho' much against her will to let them both suck. She was recoinciled in 4 days, was set at liberty, & she and her lambs did well. Had I not interfered, I am of opinion that she would have killed her second lamb as the first ewe I mentioned very probably had done.


I had a lamb brought in one morning ( the dam unknown) and when I thought it was about to breathe its last, in ordered it to be killed to put it out of misery_ Madame Piero a native of France begged its life, & said she could recover it. She put it along the fire, folding it in flannels and gave it coffee sweetened with milk and sugar; and in about one hour it was walking about the house. The dam could not be distinguished from the other sheep, & I therefore chose out a


Observations on sheep

ewe which I knew had lost her lamb. I tied her as I had treated the former, & after a few days she caressed it as her own_ That I might know if the experiment would succeed, I took particular notrice of this orphan lamb until it was well grown.


It seems to be in the order of Providence that the good should suffer persecution_the more virtue shines, the more it is slandered, & the more we see the faithful become illustrious for their virtue and innocence, the more they are sersecuted and wronged by the wicked_ To the sheep, tho' innocent has a host of enemies! The wolf, the dog, the hog, the fox, the bald eagle and the buzzard_ In yeaning time the buzzard watches the favourable moment & which watches the favorable moment & when a lamb appears, perhaps before it has once seen the light of heaven he deprives it, by two effective pecks, of both its eyes: then turing to the hinder parts, he draga out the whole of its entrail_ By this time he commonly has a few guests,


Observation on sheep

and the little creation is soon devoured. This is often a work of a cry few minutes, say 10 at furthest. The poor mother makes no deference, but walking around the tragical scene, expresses her anxiety and extreme grief by stamping her feet hard upon the ground. A hungry, mischievous old sow does the work in less time and with much less ceremony. A lamb is not out of danger unitl it is about 2 weeks old; for the buzzard will steal upon it while sleeping unitl instinct has far ripened as to awaken it to alarm.


The great enemy to sheep in the vegetable kingdom is said to be caked ground ivy. It is a lowly creeping vine thickly set with a row of leaves branching out horrizontally on each other side of the stem. Its dark verdant hue is seldom noticed except by the diligent eye_ It abounds in low swampy woodlands, & is commonly forced in beds of a few feet


Observations on sheep

in extent. I have seen it in the woodlands of St. Inigo's, and in the marshy woodlands of the whole marsh. I never seen it eaten by the sheep but the opinion of its proving fatal to that arrival is so general that I must respect it: it is also strenghtened by the underminable fact , that many sheep in the neighbourhood of the ivy, die towards spring in good plight and without any apparent disease_ The sheep having travelled thro' a tedious winter on dry food, has, at the approach of spring, a strong craving for something green. Nothing, however, appears, except the ground ivy, which seems to be a hardy veteran in the family of evergreens. I have been informed that salt prevents the deleterious effects of the ivy.


It is a received opinion that cattle should have warm sheters during the cold winter nights, snows and cold rainy seasons. Indeed, experience shows that regular housing in severe weather,


Observations on Sheep

is to the cow and the horse equivalent to a fourth part of their food- The sheep, however, is an exception. A large flock would require a a very large house to shelter them- besides, it is said, that the breath of an infected sheep will poison a whole flock if combined in a house- Then to obliterate the necessity of sheltering them (in moderate climates) Providence has given them a thick warm coat capable of expelling cold. And an oily substance which exudes from the skin and diffuse itself thro' the whole maps of wool, excludes rain. During long, cold, heavy rains by which the oil is washed off, they are apt to suffer, and it is very probable that they take grievous colds during such exposure- Indian corn and salt warm and strengthen; and were these two articles given to them twice a day in cold rains, we may measurably


suppose, that they would not take those colds nor labour under a decline as many of them commonly do.


The sheep, tho' suited to cold climates on account of its very warm coat, is certainly a tender animal and must suffer much whenever cold moisture can permeate to the skin. This is shown from the circumstance of some farmers shearing their sheep too early in May, before the cold Spring rain on a sheep just shared will asuredly kill it. From this single circumstance I have known some lose 20 or 30 of their flocks in the course of a few days.


Salt may be said to be the life of a sheep- At the end of the late war, having no sheep on St. Inigo's farm, I purchased a flock of 60 or 80 in the forests of St. Mary's. Those taken to the farm in very poor conditions, they became fat in a few weeks- This was


chiefly attributed to the salt water. During the war the sheep and cattle were sent away by Fr. Fr. Neale to be pastured at the white marsh in order that they might be out of the enemy's reach. At their arrival they were all fat and would have demanded a good price in market. Several of the sheep died, & probably all would have died had they not been sent to the college for slaughter.- Nearly all the cattle died the ensuing winter, & double for this very reason, because they had been removed from the salt water.


I have been told that the sheep does well on salt and clay, & that by the use of this fare they thrive and keep in good health. I am partial to this opinion tho' I never made so fair a trial of the clay as to notice its good affects. We ought to learn from nature whenever we can for she teaches many important lessons. I believe it is an undisputed fact that the very animal has an instinctive knowledge of


that which will do it harm. Thus no animal will touch a poisonous herb except when impelled by want. It is no less an established point, that every animal has an innate sense of what will do it good, and establish improve and preserve its health. This being granted, let us learn from the horse- I have often seen him when in good order take mouthfuls of clay or dirt & eat it with aridity- from this I have never seen any bad effeects. I am rather inclined to believe it does him good; and feel persuaded that he would not take it if it did does him good; and feel persuaded that he would not take t if it did not benefit him. Instinct may be defined inclination or the power of volition in brutes,- Providence gave it; and whatever he does is done with wisdom & for the benefit of his creatures- Therefore the clay must be of service to the horse- if good for him, why not for the sheep?


The salt & clay are prepared in the following way. A strong brine


is made- with this a quantity of tough clay entirely free from sand and gravel is worked up as the baker makes his dough. It is then made into balls as big as large apples or bigger, and put away to dry. The shepherd has small troughs in which he feeds his flock- the balls are put into the troughs, and corn meal sprinkled over them for the first or second time to invite the sheep to lick them. When the sheep get a taste of the balls, they will lick of a certain portion of them every day until they disappear- when sheep have been grazing for some weeks in the spring, an accumulationof filthy lagre is formed at the tail which must be injurious to them- These ought to be cut away, and should any ulcers appear, the parts ought to be annointed with the hog's lard.


Everyone knows the value of sheep, & yet there are very few in Maryland that duly appreciate their worth. The meat, tallow, wool and skin are highly valuable for the various purposes in life- but these are not all- perhaps their litter would give the farmer more than all the articles mentioned above. This may be found by calculations. Suppose a flock of one hundred confined in a pen of half an acre every night and that this land is so poor that it produces but five bushels of wheat per acre. The penning of this flock during one week regularly, will improve the lands so far that it will produce 10 bushels per acre. Then in one year I shall have improved 26 acres. The 26 will give me 130 bushels extra per acre. Allowing 30 bushels for the expense of cultivation I shall have 100 bushels extra- Put the wheat at $1-50 cts. per bushel- Sheep


in the country commonly go at $1-50 cts. a head- According to this, the litter of the flock amounts to the value of the whole flock- but suppose the litter to be overrated, yet its value is very great-


I have supposed the sheep to be penned every night in the year; but everyone knows that this cannot be done during winter when in this case they would have no sort of shelter at all; but would be cruelly exposed to the most injurious weather. A stationary *Where the situation & improvements of the farm will allow it, it is better to have a stationary sheep-fold and cow-pen, thatn to be at the trouble of moving; but in this case they ought to be kept covered with old straw, or some other reduse. pen should be provided in or near the barnyard with open shelters where they can shelter themselves at pleaure. The shepherd can use this pen at all difficult seasons in winter, taking care from time to time to cover it over with old straw or some other repuse- In this way the manure will be saved with increased advantage. In the spring, summer, and fall, he can have a


moveable pen which should be moved every week. He can have 4 truck wheels on which a body may be built sufficiently capacious to contain a small bed. This wagon bed must be covered with a good sheet. The shepherd with this wagon, his dog and his gun (the bayonet being fixed) is prepared to meet nocturnal plunderers and to brave all dangers.


Should the grousing grounds be in the commons, his occupation during the day should be to keep them from straying or herding with strange flocks, & to make them a name as the best grounds. He should let them graze on the same grounds as seldom are possible. It is obvious that if the pasture lands be within the enclosed fields of the farm, his services as shepherd will not be wanting during the day, and he can be otherwise employed.


Lands ought to be altered early in May; for if htis business be postponed


to the end of May or the beginning of June, it frequently happens that the heat proves fatal to them in their wounded state.


Note. at page 171 I have allowed thirty bushels for farming expenses- This is not more than half enough, but the consideration that the land when this crop is taken from it is considerably meliorated and left in that good state ought ot balance the other expenses.