Diary of Br. Joseph Mobberly, Vol V.

1825 Oct. 17.th


17 Mond. Since 25th Sep. we have had but one light shower - About 2 weeks ago a Comet appeared in the South East whose tail is very long - Revd. Mr. Virgil Barber arrived last Saturday from Clermont N.H. Says his Father came on before him, & supposes him to be at St. Inigos.

Revd. F. Fines & myself have just finished examining the accounts of all the Students in the house & have found many Errors - total amt . of Error, $ 215-25 from 1820 up to 1825, all which I fear the College must lose -

We have also found many omissions in point ^of^ pocket money respecting Students ^who^ were in the habit of drawing their weekly 121/2 or 25 cts. However, of these we are not entirely

2 Oct. New Events.

certain, for it may be that their weekly portions were withheld for reasons unknown to us, tho' This appears to be improbable.

18 Tuesd. Sudden change - strong N.W. blow - rain'd & snowed last night - Cold

19 Wed. Frost - ice. - - -

A crowed of new events has taken place in the present year, which seem to be the prognostics of something more than common. La Fayette has made his tour thro' the United States - South America has gained her Independence & the United States and Great Britain have acknowledged it - The Catholic emancipation has been discussed in England with much warmth, and has excited deep Interest - A general drought has visited Europe Asia and America - Excessive & extraordinary heat has been felt

3 Oct. New Events.

on the 4 Quarters of the Globe - A general cry is heard of weevil in the wheat - It has even appeared in the Indian Corn in the field - Governor Troup of Georgia has raised his voice against the mother Government, and has quarrelled with her - He holds the large majority in the State of Georgia - A comet appeared a few weeks ago in a South East direction, passing from East to West exactly over the State of Georgia as seen from this College - Perhaps it was the heat of this Comet that gave so much fire to Mr. Troup's brain - The Greeks who are fighting the Turks have sent a petition to the Pope to be reunited to the Roman Catholic Church. The Storm which usually accompanies the Sun's passage over the line, did not occur till the 27th of October. It would seem that the laws of nature have been disturbed, or partially suspended.

4 Oct. Devotion to the B. Virgin recommended

About the year 1802 a Student was taken into the Sodality with me by Bp. Dubourg, who was then a Priest and President of this Institution. Prior to this the said Student's conduct had not been very regular, but from a partial reform, & many fair promises, Superiors were induced to admit him. In a short time after, he became impatient of Subordination. He was reproved, but did not reform, & finally his conduct was so irregular, that the President dismissed him from the College. He soon became a Deist in practice and affected to be so in theory. After 3 or 4 years spent in habits of dissipation, he became quite blind. I asked a friend what was the cause of his blindness, & I could obtain no other answer than that his wicked life had led to it. He was converted

5 Oct. Respect recommended &c.

in time of the Jubilee - I saw him a little after the Jubilee, & his conduct was then good & edifying. I believe he is still living, but he will never be able to see without a miracle, for his eye balls appear to be sunk into his head.

I have always considered his misfortunes as a judgment of God for his evil courses, & especially for his undutiful behaviour to the blessed Mother of God. Let my creed be what it may, reason tells me that great respect is due to the blessed Virgin Mary, not only on account of her extraordinary Sanctity, but also on account of her sublime dignity of Mother of God. The many singular favours which she has so often obtained of God for those who have addressed themselves to her in time of need, ought to

6 Nov. Respect &c. Grammar.

engage all, especially young persons to bear her great respect and to obtain her intercession. And on the contrary, the many misfortunes that have overtaken those who have neglected to show her that respect & veneration which by so many considerations are due to the mother of God, & which she has always received from the Catholic world ought to be a warning to all, but especially to those who say or do anything to her dishonour.

Nov. 10th The sound of the d in the imperfect tense of many of the regular verbs is seldom or never heard, when the verb precedes a consonant. Thus it is very difficult to sound the d in the following examples. I moved

7 Nov. Grammar

to the western Country. He claimed the honors of war. The vessels contained dirty water. They used dirt instead of stones. You managed too well to fail. In all, these and many other instances which often occur in conversation, it is very difficult, if not impossible for the ear to determine whether the present or the imperfect tense is intended - Hence confusion - hence misunderstandings & therefore great inconveniences.

When the singular number is used, the consequences are not as bad, but the sentence must sound as incorrect: for the phrase, He examined the students, is very bad grammar if the d is not heard. The context indeed will often show the speaker's meaning; but this does not always happen, & even when

8 Nov. Grammar

it does, the sentence has something in it that displeases the ear - Men of note in the literary world would do well to notice this irregularity and to introduce a reform - Could I claim a right of dictating to others, I would recommend the necessity of always pronouncing the ed in the imperfect tense of the Indicative and subjunctive moods of the active voice; and I think it would be well to pronounce the syllable ed as strongly in the imperfect tense of those verbs, as it is pronounced in the adjectives, wicked, armed, learned &c.

By introducing this practice & fixing it as a permanent rule, we should always avoid

9 Nov. Grammar

ambiguity and make ourselves be well understood by all around us. The moral world stands in need of a reform - What is more opposed to good morality than misrepresentations and lies? And yet, these often take place from the sinking of the d in the imperfect tense. My neighbor often understands me in the present time, whereas I intend that he should understand me in the passed. How many disputes, contradictions, & slanders grow out of the sinking of the d in the tense to which I allude?

I see no reason that the learned should object to this change - It is necessary & the consequences would be good. There is nothing unpleasant in the sound of ed -

10 Nov. Grammar

We sound it in several adjectives, and why not in the verbs? The only objection that can be made, is that it is opposed to common usage: but we are rational beings, and ought we to be so far attached to our customs, as not to change them for better ones? What makes language & good grammar? The general consent of men, and it is by this consent that every important change in grammar has been made & adopted.
What I say, I learned to write under an excellent teacher, it seems impossible to sound the d; and if it is not heard, my friend is at a loss to know my meaning - he must then inquire and I must explain - Sir, I mean that when I did learn to

11 Nov. Grammar.

write, I learned under an excellent teacher. This explanation is necessary, in order to distinguish the imperfect from the present tense. But all this time a trouble may ^might^ be avoided by pronouncing the short and easy syllable ed. We are only opposed to the sound of that syllable in the imperfect tense, because it ^is^ not our custom to sound it- were the ear accustomed to it, it would probably be as agreeable to us as any other sound.
The same emission in the pre-sent and imperfect tenses of the passive voice, is also attended with inconvenience & harshness. If I understand the following sentence according to the sound, he was accustomed to write well, it is complete nonsense; for it sounds

12 Nov. Grammar.

to my ear this: he was a custom to write well. The sentence I am accustomed to write well, sounds no better.
By sounding the ed, we should render our language more agree-able to foreigners, who always find a great difficulty in making the d be heard. Can we blame them for not understanding us comma, when we do not understand one another? To be understood, we are under the necessity of explaining.
A reform in some of our ir-regular verbs is not less desirable. Those which are the same in their present and imperfect tenses and perfect participles, are subject to the same inconvenience of which I have been speaking. The phrases, I cut, we cut, you cut, or, they cut,

13 Nov. Grammar.

may be taken as conveying an idea either of passed or present time. Where the time is not designated by the context, or by some explanatory phrase, the place of the at-tribute is evidently involved in doubt and obscurity. Language is a great blessing, and was given by the Almighty in order that man might understand his neighbor's meaning. If our language does not convey our meaning, it is defective and therefore needs a reform; because it ought to answer the end for which it was instituted. The inconvenience to which I allude might be obviated by giving those verbs the regular form. It is the holy Will of God, that all his blessings should answer the end for which they were given. It is, however probable that a change of some of the irregular verbs would be attended with much impropriety.

14 Address to young people.

Fellow Students
Without your own best exertions, the concern of others for your welfare, will be of a little avail: with them, you may fairly promise yourselves success. It is therefore important for you to co-opperate with the zealous endeavours of your friends, to promote your improvements and happiness. This co-opperation, whilst it secures your own progress, will afford you the heart-felt satisfaction of knowing that your are cherishing the hopes, and augmenting the pleasures of those with whom your are connected by the most endearing ties. It is no less important for you to entertain serious and elevated views of the studies in which you are engaged.
Whatever may be your attain-

15 Address to young people.

ments, never allow yourselves to rest satisfied with mere literary acquirements, nor self-ish or contradicted application of them. Where they advance only the interests of this stage of Being, and look not beyond the present transient scene, their influence is circum-scribed within a very limitted sphere. The great business of this life, my fellow students, it to pre-pare and qualify us for the enjoyment of a better, by cultivating a pure and humble state of mind, and cherishing habits of piety towards God and benevolence to men. Eve-ry thing that promotes or retards this important work, is of great moment to you, and claims your first and most serious attention.
If the cultivation of letters and advancement in knowledge, are found to strengthen and enlarge your

16 Address to young people.

minds and to dispose you to pious and virtuous sentiments and conquest they produce excellent effects, and will not fail to render you not only wise good yourselves, but also the happy instruments of diffusing wis-dom, religion and goodness around you. Thus improved your acquisitions may eventually serve to increase the rewards and which the Supreme Being has promised to faith-ful and well directed exertions.
Do not counteract the hopes Superiours, and the tendency of those attainments. Your worthy parents are looking on you with anxious expectation, that you will meet their warmest wishes. Your friends and relatives entertain the strongest hopes of your future success.
Contemplating the dangers

17 Address to young people.

to which you are exposed, the sorrows and dishonour that accompany talents misapplied and a course of indolence and folly, be careful to exert your utmost endeavours to avoid them. Seriously reflect on the great end for which you were brought into existence, and the bright & encouraging examples of many excellent young persons; and on the mournful deviations of others, who were formerly in the path to promotion and renown.
This is the morning of your life in which pursuit is ardent, and obstacles readily give way to vigour & perseverance. Embrace this favourable season; devote yourselves to the acquisition of knowledge & virtue, & humbly pray to God to bless your labours. Often reflect on the advantages which

18 Address to young people.

you possess, and on the source from whence they are al derived. Whatever difficulties and discouragements you may find either in the pursuit of your studies or in re^si^sting the allurements of Vice, you may be humbly confident, that divine assistance will be afforded to all your good and pious resolutions, and that every virtuous effort will meet a correspondent reward.

Friday Dec. 15 1825

Spoken on this day in the College Refectory before Revd. Father Dzierozinski, Superior; Revd. F. Debuisson, President; the Professors, Prefects and all the students of Geo. T. College Master Sam. Hill spoke with spirit & energy & was well understood by all. Tho' the first time, his manner of address, for an infant Orator was very good. He far surpassed my expectations, & merited and received the approbation of all

19 Weevil

Every one cries out weevil! The ravages of this destructive in-sect seem to be pretty general. Often has the question been asked, how does the weevil come? This question has never been answered in a satisfactory way and perhaps it cannot be answered in a manner that will remove all doubt on the subject.
Some assert that the weevil de-posits an egg at the foot of the plant, and others in the joint of the wheat stalk; and that it feeds on the stalk in the fall and spring. Something or all of this may be true. We know from experience, that nearly every tree and every plant has one insect that attacks the fruit & another that preys on the foliage. It is then more than probable that the +fly which escapes from the grain,

+See No. 6 page 29 & 30.

20 Weevil

is different from the one that feeds on the stalk.
It is a fact pretty well established by universal experience that almost every tree and every plant has an insect that is natural to it, & which appears in the fruit and injures it. Every sort of apple, peach, plum &c. has a worm peculiar to it & which is ingendered in the body of the fruit ñ so wheat, rye, Indian corn &c.
I feel persuaded that the weevil does not attack the external surface of the grain and make its way to the heart, as many imagine; but that it takes its birth within the grain. As it vivifies it works its way outwardly; and when it comes to a perfect state, it feels its own importance & flies away.
But, if this insect is natural

21 Weevil

to the grain, why does it not ap-pear every year? Because the seasons in the succeeding years are not the same; some (?) ^are^ very cool, some warm & some very warm. The appearance of weevil depends on heat. If the season be cool, it will not appear, because there will not be heat enough to produce it. Should the season be regularly warm & warm enough, the wheaten thief will come. But when the season is alternately warm and cold, it will not appear, & for the same reason that the eggs of a hen cannot hatch when she has set irregularly on them. Too much heat destroys it; too much cold prevents its appearance. * It is pro-

*It is said that some people kiln-dry their Indian Corn before they ship it, to prevent the weevil from

22 Weevil.

bably for this reason that we never hear of weevil in the northern climates; whereas, its visitations are fatal in a portion of the North temperate zone.
When wheat is stowed away in in a cool barn as it is cut and taken from the field, the insect does ^not^ appear; but when put in the open air and exposed to the rays of a vertical sun, it will appear,

getting into it, supposing, that by this means, they render the corn too hard for the weevil's tooth: but they rather prevent the weevil from coming out of it by destroying the principal that produces it. So they say that the straw of the Lawler wheat is so hard that the weevil cannot penetrate it. When we begin at the wrong end to find out the truth, we run into absurdities and nonsense.

23 Weevil.

if a proper degree of heat be preserved for a sufficient length of time.
I have been led to these reflections from my own experience & the various observations which I have made. The pea, which is commonly called the English pea, will support me in the hypo-

The Lawler wheat story was a catch-penny. It was, ^perhaps^, a knavish scheme invented to deceive the honest farmers of Maryland; for it is well known that the Lawler wheat does not exclude the weevil. It may be that some sorts of grain are of a colder nature & therefore less susceptible of the fly than others. It is said that when wheat is mixed with rye, it has much less weevil in it proportionably, than when it is unmixed. Perhaps the nature of rye is colder than wheat.

24 Weevil.

thesis. The peas that we reserve for seed are commonly put away in a close place where no insect can molest them. In the spring we take them out to sow them, & to our surprise we find a large hole in each; and in the vessel that contains them, we find the bug that did the mischief, the magnitude of which is equal to the diameter of the hole. There can be no doubt that the said insect is ingendered in the body of the pea. I have been informed by the natives of Ireland that no insect disturbs the pea in that Country. To account for this, we must observe that Ireland is 12 or 15 degrees more north than we are. The cold there is not so great nor is the heat so intense as it is with us. Hence we may reasonably conclude, that the heat in that Country is not suffi-

25 Weevil.

cient to produce the bug. No one will deny that an extraordinary season may occur in any climate and produce the weevil; but I believe it is chiefly confined to the North temperate zone.
An insect also takes birth in Indian Corn, but this does not happen until the Corn has past a hot season. This ^is^ another proof, that a certain degree of heat is necessary to produce this insect. It is said that the weevil has been seen this year in the Indian Corn, while standing in the field. This ought not to surprise us when we consider the universal degree of heat that has prevailed, the regular degree of heat during summer and autumn, & that we never before experienced so few transitions from cold to heat, &

26 Weevil

from heat to cold, as we have during the present year.
It might be asked
1. What insect deposits the egg that produces the weevil?
2. Where? In the stalk or in the grain?
3. If in the grain, ^(or blossom)^ how many insects would it require to inoculate all the grains in a field of one hundred Acres?
4. At what particular time is it done?
5. Whether propagated without the agency of insects or not?
6. Is there an innate property in the grain, which is acted upon by a certain degree of heat & vivified by it?
All these points may be delivered over to the investigation of the curious, who, when they will have made their observations, will probably leave us in ignorance, and

27 Weevil.

be involved in doubt themselves.
We know some things but there are many others which we do not know. We know that all the flesh in the human frame, when separated from the soul, is convertible into ëwormsñBut is this done by the agency of insects? We know that all the particles of a large cheese, are, in a few hours transformed into skippers by the agency of what insect? Large worms are frequently found in the bodies of trees ñ by what means went they thither? Would not zoologists meet with more difficulty in solving these questions than the poor worm found in making his way into the tree?
We know many facts that exist, the origin of which, we know very little. It is not always necessary ^essential^ to know

28 Weevil.

their origin; if we can find a secondary ca^u^se, which, when co-operating with the primary ones, will produce the effect, & learn how to prevent the effect, this, perhaps, is all we ought to desire.
If the weevil comes from an innate property in the grain ^which is^ long acted upon by a certain degree of heat, it is highly important for us to to know how to prevent it. If the cause of it is a uniform degree of heat, ????????????, the preventing of it is not in our power: we may, however, by proper management, prevent the exposure of the wheat to that fatal degree of heat which does the mischief. This might probably ^possibly^ be effected in the following way.
The common method of

29 Weevil

saving wheat is to bind and shock it in the field, as it is cut by the reapers or cradlers. According to this mode twelve good cradlers in good wheat, would require 15 or 20 labourers to bind and shock. But if these binders were divided and employed in picking up, carting home, and threshing out the wheat as it is cut, they would, I believe, finish their work nearly as soon as the cradlers. No doubt this method would have its difficulties; but do we find none in binding and shocking? Many and very great ones. Farmers have been so long in the habit of b^bind^ing, that they sup-pose their wheat could never be carried home straight without it. I am fond of old customs, but I am always willing to exchange them for new ones, if this can be

30 Weevil.

done with advantage. I have seen wheat hauled home very straight, and neatly put up into shocks without being bound.
Four principal advantages would attend this system.
1. It would cut off about one months labour; for Farmers generally require one month after harvest to haul home their wheat and to thresh it.
2. The Farmer could meet the first wheat market, which is com-monly considered the best.
3. The Spring pastures generally fail about the commencement of harvest, and the cattle lose their flesh and become distressed. According to this system, they would enjoy an early fall pasture.

31 Weevil.

4. By threshing and cleaning the wheat as soon as it is cut, the Farmer would be enabled to lay it
away thinly on cool floors during the hot season, and thereby prevent the appearance of weevil. Good stone floors in a house so shaded, that the sun cantnot shine dpon it would, I dm persuaded, effectually protect the wheat from this destroying insect. They who cannot procure these conveniences, would probably prevent the evil by putting large stones into their piles of ^threshed^ wheat, in order to keep it cool.
Some think it a good way to put the wheat into a close place, that it may create a degree of heat sufficient to destroy the insect. This is a little like murdering an man in order to save

32 Weevil.

his life. The heat may destroy the weevil in certain parts of the pile but not in all: besides, the wheat by this means must necessarily receive great injury. It is certainly a very desirable object to prevent the evil entirely, which probably might be done by conveying the wheat into the shade as early as possible, & by using every reasonable means to keep it cool. The great point is to shelter the wheat from the sun before the evil begins; for after it has begun, it will continue to a certain extent and do much mischief. Perhaps a greater degree of heat is required to produce it, than to continue it in existence.
If the weevil does not affect

33 Weevil.

the ripe grain when standing in the field, it must be because the air has free circulation through-out the field and prevents that degree of heat which is necessary to impart life to the insect. But as soon as it is cut, & collected in a body, the sun has much more power over it than the air can have, and it is from this circumstance, that the proper degree of heat is raised, & in a few days the weevil appears. I have known the top of a stack to be ground into dust, while the top ^bottom^ half remained good and sound - The reason is plain -The bottom half was near the cool earth and well protected from the rays of the sun by the top-half of the stack. This is another proof that a certain degree of heat is neces-

34 Weevil.

sary to produce the weevil.
In Maryland, farming & planting ^are generally^ united. The corn calls for the farmer's ^ploughman's^ attention ??? in harvest but ^and^ the Farmer's horses cannot be spared for treading or threshing the wheat at that particular season. But were the farmer to plant to plant his corn in the first favorable weather in March, and pay strict attention to it, he would be done with it before harvest, & his horses would be free for treading or threshing. This I think the Farmer could do with propriety; for of late, the seasons have undergone a change, and March, as it appears to me is now a more eligible month for the planting of Indian Corn, than any other. He only has to make the suitable preparations in due.

35 Weevil.

time, which he may easily do when he has saved one month's labour, as I have noticed above.
Mr. West sowed a little of the Lawler wheat last year, and it so happened that it was cut and threshed sooner than the rest of his crop. The consequence is that the Lawler has much less weevil than the other wheat; and had it been threshed as soon as it was out, and put away in a cool place, I am persuaded that the weevil would not have molested it.
When we consider the extraordinary heat that falls on the torrid zone and in the neighbourhood of the tropics, we wonder how it is possible that any human creature can breathe in those climates; and we might suppose, that as wheat seems to

36 Weevil

be adapted only to cold and temperate climates, it either would not grow within the tropics at all or that the excessive degree of heat would occasion it to be devoured by the weevil. But when we consider that this reverse takes place in those hot climates, our wonder is increased and we are naturally inclined to inquire into the cause. It is pretty certain, that if kind providence had not made arrangements to meet the wants and necessities of man in those countries, animal life could not be supported, and I doubt if the fervid sun would not even consume every sort of combustible matter. God in his goodness has wonderfully provided for all those Countries which are so much exposed to excessive heat. He has thrown up ranges of lofty moun-

37 Weevil.

tains that seem to lift their summits to the stars! These are capped with eternal snow, which cools the atmosphere, and renders it not only supportable, but highly agreeable & charming. A principal range, called the mountains of the moon, stretches across the Continent of Africa (from Cape Guardafui E. to Cape Verde W.) between the Equator and the tropic of Cancer. Another considerable range extends along the Eastern Coast from Cape Cobir to the Tropic of Capricorn. Many other smaller ranges are dispersed in various directions throughout that vast extent of Country. The Himaleh Mountains of Asia commence opposite to the Island Formosa, pass thro' the Southern Provinces of China,

38 Weevil.

and running along in the neighborhood of the Tropic of Cancer, terminate near the borders of the Caspian sea. The rocky Mountains run from the arctic Ocean to Mexico, then taking the name of Cordilleras, they cross the Isthmus of Darien and run round nearly the whole extent of South America. These stupendous piles impart a refreshing coolness to the surrounding districts, & afford copious streams that water the adjacent plains.
Some of the largest Islands within the Tropics have ranges of lofty mountains running from one extremity to the other - So Madagascar, Cuba and Jamaica, each of which is divided nearly in to two equal parts by the range that forms the division. Many

39 Weevil.

of the other Islands are provided for in a similar way.
Thus Divine Providence has wisely disposed the climates of those Countries, not only for the support of animal life, but also for the producing of excellent crops of wheat grain. Such is South America, where the tropical fruits are the favourite crops in the plains and valleys, whilst on the highlands under the protection of the mountains, wheat holds the preeminence.
"To him the mountains bring forth grass: there the beasts of the field shall play." Job 40. 15.
"Thou who preparest the mountains by thy strength, being girded with power." Ps.64. 7.
"Thou sendest forth springs in the vales: between the midst of the hills the water shall pass. Thou wa-

40 Weevil.

terest the hills from thy upper room, the Earth shall be filled with the fruit of they works." Ps. 103. 10. 13.
"Who maketh the grass to grow on the mountains, and herbs for the service of men." Ps. 146. 8.
The more elevated situations being chosen for wheat, and the plains for the tropical fruits, is, I think a presumptive proof that the plains are not favourable to the growth of wheat, the reasons of which may be, that the degree of heat in the low lands is such as to produce the weevil. If this is true, it serves as an additional proof of what I have advanced - that a certain degree of heat is required to bring that insect into action.
The providence of God in those Tropical regions is truly wonderful. On the sea coasts which are too far

41 Weevil.

removed from the vicinity of the mountains to be much benefitted by their refrigerating influence the goodness of God has provided cooling and refreshing breezes which regularly blow from the sea from 10 O'clock in the morning till 6 in the evening. In other parts, where the plains extend several hundred miles, and are not protected either by the sea breezes or by the snow-capped mountains; rainy & dry seasons take place in regular succession. In the rainy season, (which continues 3 or 4 months) large bodies of water are left upon the plains, which cool the atmosphere & render it tolerable to man and beast.
Farmers and planters gene-

42 Weevil.

-rally have their Granaries and basic houses of a law pitch, and exposed to the rays of the sun from morning till night. Where this is the case, I am not surprised to hear of weevil. A granary ought either to be very high with several stories well flooded, or if low, the roof should be perfectly & thickly shaded from the sun. Granaries ought to have as much air as possible as possible The idea building sheds around them, is a bad one. It is done with a view to protect the sills, but are other methods and much cheaper means of protecting the sills then that of building sheds.
The more I consider the origin of the weevil the more I feel convinced that without a certain degree of heat, it cannot come into action.

See No. 6 pag. 29 - + see page 86. This No.

43 Christmas.

Hail beloved babe of royal line,
From David's race descending;
Thy humble mien proves thee divine,
With earthly pride contending.
The world is blind in spurning thee,
The Bethlemites rejecting,
What Patriarchs desire to see,
Thy holy light reflecting.
The holy angels come + bow,
Thy sacred praises singing,
The Shepherds to adore thee now
Their humble homage bringing.
Thy Virgin Mother by thee stays,
They beauty contemplating;
And smiling on they infant ways,
They love she's compensating.

(The following letter is glued into this diary volume between pages 42 and 43)

St. Thomas 22 February 1825

Dear Rev

I have read your thoughts on the subject of the destructive animal The Weevil. I approve of them in general having not had in my power to make the equipment which you mention. I cannot say with any pledge of certainty, that they would finally answer. I have been inclined to think, that a salted atmosphere is more associated to the breeding of this animal then what you are pleased to mention, for I have observed that the farther we go from such an atmosphere, the less we find of the weevils. Could you find out a remedy against the destruction of what is called the Hessian Fly you would be of more service to farmers in general: I expect that no remedy will be found out, until it be one to destroy the smallest ants that occupy our lands -
Guide, a Catalogue of submissions was sent Mr. Mulligan by the Rev. Br. _ Walsh together with the manner for Binding and write their names on the outside of the book in Gold letters - Send 1. in red Marocco with Dorothy Manning's name on the out side 1. in red moracco with George Jenkin's name.

Yours Etc.
Francis Neale

44 Jan. 7. 1826. Bp. of Boston

On the 1st of last November the Rev. B. Fenwick was consecrated Bp. in Baltimore on which occasion Br. England ^preached^ - the Rt. Revd. B. Fenwick Bp. of Boston and came on to Geo. T. College and remained with us a few days, after which, he and the Rev. Virgil Barber set out for Boston taking Bp. England with them, who returned to the city of Washington last December, preached twice in St. Patrick's, once in Revd. Mr. Lucas' Church on Capital hill, once at the Convent of the Visitation, once in Trinity Church of Geo. Town, once in Alexandria, & to-morrow he is to to preach in the Capital, being

45 Jan. 8. Bp. Engld . Health.

invited to do so, by several of the members of Congress. Jan. 8 - Today I went to the Capital - great concourse of all classes - Many returned immediately because they could not get in. The Bp. preached nearly two hours - took a course calculated to conciliate the minds of Protestants.


The general complaints that appear amongst us are fevers, which assume different features according to the dif various circumstances that attend them. Phisicians seem to agree, that a redundanc-y^e^ of bile is the first & general cause of fever. Hence the first thing that demands the Physician's attention, is the removal of bile. When that is accomplished

46. 1826. Feb. 5. Health. 1826

The patient commonly recovers; but if it cannot be removed, the consequences are generally fatal. To obtain medical aid when we are under the influence of fever is a great consolation; but it would certainly be much better, were we not to stand in need of that consolation. If we could find out a method of preventing a too copious supply of bile, from what dangers should we be freed, and what expenses should we avoid! Our constitutions would be preserved, our comforts increased, and our pleasures ^rendered^ more permanent. Were we to pay a due regard to temperance in eating and drinking, not only our comforts would be increased ^improved^; but we should also be freed from a redun^dan^cy of bile, and enjoy an extraordinary share

47 Feb. 5. Health.

of good health. We are fond of eating, and we are desirous of maintaining health; but we cannot enjoy all the pleasures of both. If, when sitting at table, we meet with disappointments in regard of our favorite morsels, we take it ill, and begin to think we are ruined. The gratification of sense is our first, perhaps our chief motive; tho' right reason dictates every Christian that the pleasing of God and the promotion of health, ought to take place of all other considerations.
In order to prevent bile, we ought to know the causes that produce it. The cause being removed, the effects must vanish. A very great, perhaps the principal cause of bile, is indigestion. Indigestion is brought on by taking unwholesome food, by a want of sufficient mastication,

48 Feb. 5. Health. 1826

or by taking too great a quantity into the stomach at a time. Some, indeed can digest much more than others, either on account of the superior strength of their constitutions, or of their being occupied in active & laborious employments. Every one ought to notice his occupations and the strength of his constitution, and regulate the quantity and quality and the rep-tition of his his meals accordingly. The meals of sedentary persons, should be light and of easy digestion: labour-ers may take much more food, and a grosser diet. Theswe observations, I presume, are familiar to every one but our misfortune is, that we sel-dom reflect on their importance. We too often go to our meals like irrational beings without paying any regard to quality or quantity,

49 Feb. 5. Health.

and we cannot prevail on ourselves to desist, until that appetite is satisfied, perhaps cloyed. In this we resemble the obstinate & unreflecting sinner, who laughs at the notion of eternal torments, because for him they seem to be at a remote date; or one who has no fear of God, because he is not punished on the spot for the commission of crime. To act thus, is not to act wisely - we ought to reflect for ourselves - We ought to use our reason; for by doing so we might, to a very great extent, keep ourselves from sickness.
Perhaps it would not be extravagant to assert, that 3/5 of the inhabitant of some our states, are hurried into Eternity, by an imprudent and immoderate use of food & ardent spirits: the latter break & not the Constitutions; the former creates

50 Feb. 5 Heath 1826

bile to a very surprising degree!
Americans hasten their death by an excessive use of meat and rich sauces. The stomach being over-charged with these, the powers of digestion are not able to perform their functions, and that which ought to be turned into nutritive chyle is, unfortunately converted into poisonous bile. We are in the habit of taking heavy suppers on meat, & of retiring to rest with little or no exercise. In such cases our rest is broken,+ a crudity is created in the stomach and in the morning we feel a keen

ë + "Watching, and choler, and gripes, are with an intemperate man: Sound and wholesome sleep with a moderate man: he shall sleep till morning; and his soul shall be delighted with him." Ecclesiasticus 31.23.24.

51 Feb. 5. Health.

hunger which is brought on by the quantity of acid on the stomach, the effects of indigestion. Tho' we can take a hearty breakfast, yet we feel that something is wrong, & that we do not enjoy that fine flow of spirit and life, which we have been accustomed to experience, and which is the constant attendant of health. In a short time, we discover that we have bile, and we wonder how it could happen! In a happy Constitution kind nature discharges the poison; but in weak Constitutions & where obstructions take place, nature refuses to do her part, and we must have recourse to medical aid. As soon as we sicken, we cry out that God has sent this sickness ñ it is his holy &c. and too often we talk in such a manner as to lay the fault on Providence, & free ourselves from all blame. We ought to correct our man -

52 Feb. 5. Health. 1826

ner of speaking, & rather say, that we have brought this illness on ourselves, by our own imprudent or wicked conduct, & that since we have imprudently indulged in sensuality, it is the holy will of God, that we should suffer the consequences in patience, & exercise ourselves in acts of repentance, love and praise. This we should do, did we possess the amiable virtue, of true humility. I am far, however, from charging every patient with being the criminal cause of his own illness. We may be afflicted by the malicious importunities of Satan, + (God permitting) as in the case

+ "There are ^spirits^ created for vengeance; & in their fury they lay on grievous torments: in the time of destruction they shall pour out their force: and they shall appease the wrath of him that

53 Feb. 5. Health.

of holy Job (cap. 2.6.) by which the faithful Servants of God are tried as Gold is tried in the fire & rendered pure: Besides, original guilt has darkened the understanding, & there are many causes for sickness of which we are ignorant, and which being unforeseen, cannot be prevented, either by the most prudent or the most holy of men. Of such I do not speak - I only speak of those who sicken from their own imprudent conduct or their criminal excesses.

made them...... taking vengeance upon the ungodly unto destruction. In his commandments they shall feast; and they shall be ready upon earth when need is: and when their time is come they shall not transgress his word." Ecclesiasticus.39:

54 Feb. 5. Health. 1826

We have so great a share of pride, that we find it very difficult to make a fair and candid acknowledgement of our faults. Hence we do not like to own that our illness is the effect of our own irregular conduct: we rather say, it is the climate; and here again we make Providence the cause of our illness, tho' the charge is made in an indirect way. Must the climate move according to our notions, or must we live according to the climate? It is certainly reasonable that we should regulate our lives according to the movements of the climate in which we live. But I deny the assertion - the cause of fevers is not ^seldom^ climate; it is our criminal indulgence. "He that sinneth in the sight of his maker, shall fall into the hands of the Physician." Ecclesiasticus.38.15.

55 Feb. 5. Health.

The climate is good + & well suited to all the wants and purposes of man. There is no ^habitable^ part of the habitable Globe that refuses necessaries or even comforts to the human race; and wherever we find Inhabitants, we also find them strongly attached to their naive clime. The Greenlanders, Laplanders, Georgians, Circassians, Kamschatskians, Icelanders and all the wandering tribes of Independent Tartary, are so far biased in favour of the land that gave them birth, that they would not exchange it for any other spot of earth in the world. We tell them they are poor & miserable and wretched ó They answer us that they are happy, and that we are the miserable people ó they acknowedge their poverty, but say they are rich enough & want no more asserting that they can live on a little & that which is poor; and that we can scarcely live ^in^ abundance and

+ Particular local causes excepted.

56 Feb. 5. Health. 1826

surrounded by exquisite dainties - that their necessities are few, but that we have increased ours to a shameful degree. The truth is that real necessity has compelled those people to live according to the climate in which providence has placed them. In this they are wise, and in this consist their health & happiness. When we learn to do the same, and when either prudence or dire necessity compels us to live in a frugal way, we shall then enjoy good health, increase our comforts, become better christians & prolong our days.
Having good Constitutions, our appetites are naturally strong, but we imprudently endeavour to increase them. We are desirous of becoming acquainted with the excellent properties of those articles which tend to sharpen them. We whet them

57 Feb. 5. Health.

in order that our pleasure in eating may be the greater; but we do not at the same time notice the bad consequences which must inevitably ensue. By increasing the appetite, we invite temptations to gluttony, & whenever we yield to them, we destroy health and wreck the Constitution.+
We ought to notice our progress in life; for as we increase in years the organs of digestion decrease in strength; and that which we could formerly take with impunity at 25 or 30, might cause our death at 45, perhaps at forty. I am acquain-

+ "Be not greedy in any feasting, & pour not out thy self upon any meat: for in many meats there will be sickness; and greediness will turn to choler. By surfeiting many have perished: but he that is temperate shall prolong life." Eccli.

58 Feb. 5. Health. 1826

ted with one, who could formerly eat raw onions like apples, and stuffed ham and roasted turkey without inconvenience, but at present there is reason to believe that the consequences would threaten a speedy dissolution. Young people also ought to be prudent, for the powers of digestion often deceive them; and if they be ^are^ not hurried to the gates of death, they at least suffer loss in Constitution.
To eat in haste is against health. If our food be not properly masticated, it cannot be easily digested, and consequently it must fail to impart the necessary nourishment and strength. Whatever tends to impede the progress of digestion is bad, & hence the practice of reposing on a bed after dinner for an hour or two, is a very detestable one, since

59 Feb. 5. Health.

by it, we deprive others of the pleasure of our society, encourage a lazy disposition, and convert our food into poison.
Too great a quality is very pernicious, but a bad quality in the food is certainly more so. Every one ought to know from experience what of quantity and qualityty will injure, & what will support and improve his health.
The manner of cooking is an important point. This general remark, is, I think, a very good one, namely, that roasted meat in general is not wholesome, but when well boiled, it is perfectly innocent. This remark may not hold good so generally as I have supposed - it is however, true in regard of the turkey.
Cold meat is much more

60 Feb. 5. Health. 1826

wholesome than warm, because the latter retains many of its bad qualities; the former loses them by evaporation. Besides, as digestion greatly depends on heat, it is very probable, that warm meat is subject to premature digestion, while the cold is not subject ^liable^ to that irregularity. Perhaps warm meat tends to depress the spirits - cold to raise them.
We ought to attend to the time of taking our principal meal. Many are in the habit of dining at four, and not being able to digest what they take at that late hour, have recourse to digesters such as cordials, and ardent spirits, coffee, cigars & the like. They seem to despise the natural powers of digestion, whilst they introduce

61 Feb. 5. Health.

those which are artificial: but in this they are unwise; for nature is perfect in her operations, whereas artificial means are very defective.
Cold meat would certainly serve our purpose much better than warm; for were we to exclude warm messes entirely, the great body of cooks and their assistants throughout the world would not be under the necessity of labouring, and of remaining from Church on the Sabbath day. The food being prepared the day before would always be ready to meet unexpected calls & to suit our every convenience. Meat is very palatable when warm, but I am of opinion that when ^if^ good & well managed, it is no less so when cold. What sweeter mean can we

62 Feb. 5. Health. 1826

find than cold beef and cold mutton? I have known many who prefered cold ham to warm. Then what objection can be offered to such a change? None that is solid ñ that we are accustomed to warm food, is the only one. Our customs are so fastened upon us, that reason herself cannot unbind them: Custom, yes all-powerful custom will have it so, and we must bow submission to its imperious dictates, tho' at the expense of health, constitution and even life itself! It will do more ñ it will rule the commandments, prevent thousands of servants from their sabbath devotions and confine them to hand labour in those employments, which, on any other day, are deemed servile.

63 Feb. 5. Health.
Supper, as well as our morning ??????? beverage, might, perhaps ought to be excluded entirely. A hearty breakfast of something solid can be taken with safety, especially by labourers. Dinner ought to be taken at a reasonable hour, say 12 ñ it ought not to exceed one O'clock.
The advantages resulting from living temperately, are very great ñ they are spiritual and corporeal.

The preservation of a good Constitution.
Good health enjoyed with few interruptions.
Business not interrupted by sickness.
Exemption from fever and excruciating pains.
No medical fees to pay.
Vigorous old age, free from infirmities.
A long and happy life.
The opposite to all these, are the ef-

64 Gen. La Fayette 1826

fects of intemperance.

The profusions subjected to reason.
A disposition to prayer supported.
Temptations few - easily conquered.
Virtue preserved - encouraged.
Few incitements to carnality - easily mastered.
Of good conscience - a continual feast.
Advancement in virtue - Union with God.
Eternal Satiety with God & his angels.
The opposite to these lead to misery & woe.

At Geo. T. College.

On the 14th of October 1824, we were visited by M.r . La Fayette who was escorted by a troop of light horse. I have noticed his visit in no 1. page 130 ñ On that occasion, almost every one wore a badge of honour pinned to his breast. A fair sample of the said badge has

65 Gen. La Fayette

accidentally fallen into my hands. I have attached it to this page as a lasting memorial of American folly and La Fayetteian vanity. I am sor^ry^ to recollect that there were some gentlemen for whom I always entertained a high esteemed on account of their learning and high standing in society, who wore the same badge in common with the multitude. Tho' they had (a little before) complained of enthusiasm in others, who had acknowledged and admired the power of Christ in the holy Eucharist when the cure of Mrs. Mattingly took place

66 Gen. La Fayette 1826

in the City of Washington; yet they were not much less enthusiastic at the appearance of the distinguished freemason, who had been a member of that same body (the first national assembly in France) that voted the confiscation of all the Ecclesiastical property, the expulsion of the R. C. Religion, and who ??????? sanctioned all the impieties of Voltaire. (Barruel p. 95.) If in doing so, their hearts were right before God, I am sure their heads were wrong; and tho I must respect them for their acknowledged worth; yet I shall never respect the soundness of their judgement, nor the warm display of their La Fayetteian piety.
It is related (see no. 1 page 149) that at Mr. La Fayette's arrival at New York, ?? even the clouds seemed

67 Gen. La Fayette

to respect him; for they poured torrents around him; but that neither he nor any of his attendants was touched by the rain. This and the Eagle (perhaps buzzard) wonder were interpreted by the multitude as having taken place to indicate to Americans the great respect which was due to so distinguished a character. But it seems the interpretation may now be turned another way ñ The clouds refused to rain on La Fayette and his friends at his arrival in 1824; and the Heavens ^have^ refused to rain on our crops in 1825, when Americans were paying the highest honours to General La Fayette. Then we may fairly conclude that the clouds, far from showing any respect for the General at his arrival were giving us a salutary warning, and admonishing us

68 Gen La Fayette 1826

to take care how we bestowed honours on one possessed of principles so pernicious to Religion, and so dangerous to all good order and right government. In 1825, the elements seemed to be disturbed ñ The natural signs for rain appeared, but, little or no rain fell. Excessive heat! Excessive drought! After harvest a little fly (weevil) appeared and spoiled the wheat. Its ravages were more general, than they were ever known to be at any former period. Thus Divine Providence has been pleased to humble the pride of the great American nation by the efforts of a poor little fly, as Pharaoh's magicians were formerly humbled by the swarms of sciniphs, that were produced from the dust of the earth.
We are so blinded by the passion

69 Gen La Fayette

of liberty, that we know not when we are visited by the rod of affliction, Liberty, that non-Entity or monstrum horrendum ..... cui lumen ademptum, is so powerful in its influence on the American mind, that ^it^ makes us sacrifice reason to sophistry, sound principles to rotten ones, and often induces us to believe we are infallibly right, when we are most assuredly wrong.
It would be very difficult, if not impossible, to convince Americans, that they have acted unwisely in lavishing their praises on La Fayette; and perhaps it would be no less difficult to persuade them that they fly was sent in punishment of their conduct. But we know not what passed in the Councils of the most high & very often when we make merry and rejoice, we have just reason to fear

70 Gen La Fayette. 1826

The judgements of God, are far different from those of men.
When I saw the badge pendant at the breasts of the multitude, it reminded me of what is said in the 13th chapter of the Apocalypse. "And he (the beast) shall make all both little and great, rich and poor, freemen and bondmen to have a mark in their right hand, or on their foreheads." verse. 16.
From the consideration of the above, the following thoughts entered my mind in the interrogatory way.
Will Antichrist rise out of a Masonic Lodge? Is Liberty to be the great beast coming up out of the sea? I know that one of the grand secrets of Masonry is to reduce man to a savage state of nature, in which he may resemble the

71 Gen. La Fayette

beast of the field. Is the principle of Liberty which was broached by Martin Luther adopted by Free-masons and supported and matured in England, to be this beast coming up out of the sea, that is, from the Isle of Albion, which is in the sea? Is N. America one of his heads or one of his horns? Is S. America another? Which horn is the Nation's Guest? Who wounded one of his heads as it were to to death? Was it the Society of JESUS? How came that wound to be healed? Was it by the suppression of the said Society? Do the different species of blasphemy uttered in the Masonic Lodges, denote the various names of blasphemy written upon the heads of the beast?
"And all the Earth was in admiration after the beast."verse 3.

72 Gen. La Fayette. 1826

Is not all the Earth at present in admiration after Liberty?
"Who is like the beast? And who shall be able to fight with it?" verse 4. ñ Every day we hear it asserted that nothing is like Liberty; that kings and tyrants may fight against it, but that Liberty must and shall prevail.
"And all that dwell upon the Earth adored him: whose names are not written in the book of life." &c. verse. ñ Was not the Goddess of Liberty set up and adored in France during the French Revolution? And did not Col. Athanasius Fenwick during about two years ago, address a company of Citizens at Clinton's Factory (St. Mary's County) on the 4th of July, in which he bitterly inveighed against the Catholic Priests of Europe for having opposed the high pretentions

73 Gen La Fayette.

of Liberty? And in giving us the result of that day's meeting, did he not inform us, that he and the Company poured out libations to the worthy heroes of the American Revolution? ñ Were the Catholic Religion banished from America, how many years would elapse before Americans would be buried in ^formal^ Idolatry? Im 50 years hence, would it be very difficult to persuade them that they ought to bend the knee to the Goddess of Liberty?
"If any man shall adore the beast, and his image, and receive his mark in his forehead, or in his hand, he also shall drink of the wine of the wrath of God, which is mingled with pure wine, in the cup of his wrath and shall be tormented with fire and brimstone in the sight of the holy Angels, and in the sight of the Lamb. And the smoke of

74 Gen. La Fayette. 1826

their torments shall ascend up for ever and ever; neither have they rest day nor night, who have adored the beast, and his image, and whosoever receiveth the mark of his name." Cap. 14. Verse 9 &c.
Who are they, against whom the angel denounces these terrible judgements? They who seek licentious liberty, and despise lawful authority?
"Hurt not the earth,...till we seal the servants of our God In their foreheads. Chap. 7.3.
I learn from the learned that this seal of the living God is to be the sign of the holy cross, the sign of salvation. As the faithful Jews believed in Christ before the coming of Christ, so this sacred sign was used before the Christian era; for we read that the devout inhabitants of Je-

75 Gen. La Fayette.

rusalem were signed with the letter Thau in their foreheads in the days of the Prophet Ezechiel. No wonder then that we read of the different tribes being sealed in their foreheads with the seal of the living God, or the sign of the holy cross.
Then the conclusion is fair, that in the days of Antichrist, all his followers will honour him by wearing some badge as the ensigns of liberty; while the christians & converted Jews will honour the redeemer of mankind by the sign of the holy Cross; ^which,^ in those days, ^will be a^ the sign of suffering and great tribulation. The former shall go into everlasting punishment; the latter, into life everlasting. Matt.25.46.
Happy is the Christian, who adheres to the truth!
It is very remarkable, that amongst all the ramifications of Luther's sys-

76 Respect to Teachers. 1826

tem, there is not one sect, (so far as I have been able to learn) that uses the sign of the holy Cross. On the contrary, Catholics have been made the butt of ridicule by their protestant Brethren, for more than 2 centuries passed; because they ^have^ uniformly and stedfastly adhered to the primitive ^custom^ of making the sign of the Cross.
Luther's Reformation was hinged on the principles of liberty. It was by adopting those principles that he succeeded, and I do not think that Antichrist will ever succeed by any other means.

Fellow Students.

Our improvement in learning depends on the well-performance of our scholastic duties; and the well-performance of them depends on the esteem we have for our

77 Respect for Teachers.

Teachers and Superiors. Our principal duty, according to Quintillian consists in loving those who teach us, as we love the sciences we learn of them; and look upon them as parents, from whom we derive not our mortal part, but that instruction , which is in a manner the life of the soul. Indeed, this sentiment of affection and respect suffices to make us apt to learn during the time of our studies, & full of gratitude all the rest of our lives.
Docility, which consists in submitting to directions, in readily receiving the instruction of Teachers, and reducing them to practice, is the virtue which we ought to encourage in others , and which we ourselves ought to pursue

78 1826

with promptitude and zeal.
The Teacher can do but little without the co-operation of the pupil. As it is not sufficient to us for a labourer to sow the seed, unless the earth, having opened her bosom to receive it, warms and moistens it; so, the whole fruit of instruction depends upon a good correspondence between the master and his scholars.
Gratitude for those who have laboured in our education is the character of an honest man, and the mark of an excellent heart. Who is there among us, says Cicero, who has been instructed with any care, and is not highly delighted with the sight, or even the bare remembrance of his preceptors, and the place


where he was taught and brought up?
Seneca exhorts young men always to preserve great respect for their Teachers, to whose care they are indebted for the amendment of their faults, & for having imbibed sentiments of honour & probity.
Their severity exactness & severity displease sometimes, at an age when we are not in a condition to judge of the obligations we owe them; but when years will have ripened our understanding and judgement, we shall then discern, that what makes us dislike them now, is exactly the very thing which should make us love and esteem them.
Inclination, indeed, as well as momentary passion,

80 1826

in our unguarded moments, turn us from the right way of thinking and render us sophistically eloquent - But what then? Are ^we^ to yield to inclination? Shall we be lead away by blind passion? - No - we are rational Beings - Reason, in all the occurrences of life, must be our guide, and point the way to truth. The cry of nature is loud, turbulent and big with moral destruction; but the voice of grace is humble, docile, and leads to happiness and renown.
Spoken by ^Jno.^ Sidney Lauvalle today (Friday) in the refectory, be-fore the Superiors and Students - did well - March 17. 1826.

81 Difficulties of foreigners in pronouncing Eng.

I made my retreat of 8 days in Holy Week last.
Last evening (Ap. 10) we had a a snow storm - very little snow, but this morning we had much ice, and it is supposed that the peaches (& perhaps other fruits) are killed.
Were my desire to address you in graceful and elegant terms much greater than it is, I could not attempt it, because the English language is new to me and full of difficult sounds. The knowledge I have of its grammatical construction is very limited; and my practice in pronunciation, has been great-ly confined. The hissing, and or ? ^and^ half-lisping sounds that occur, twist

82 1826

and double my tongue in a thousand ways.
I am told that the lisping words tha ^i^nk, thank &c. must have the sharp sound; while a great many others, such as, this, that, their, must have the flat sound. In many words, the quivering sound of r must be called in, in order to make them English. To pronounce Wh, I must almost whistle. In the imperfect tense of some words verbs, the sound of ed must give place to that of t; as fetch, fetched. The letter s very frequently borrows the sound of z; as, to possess, while the o takes that of u, as in the word come and many others. The second


vowel in the improper diphthongs must be quite silent, while the first retains all its importance, as in heat, boat and the like: In proper diphthongs, the sounds of both vowels must coalesce into one; as in voice, ounce &c. ___ and ___ ___ ___ and where should I end, were I to continue? So many rules! So many exceptions! So many harsh, grating sounds!
To give the sound of th, I must hiss like a goose, thin, thick. To give the r its full energy, I must initiate the snarling of a dog, for, war - and to sound Wh I must whistle like a clown. Indeed, I do not like this snarling, hissing, whistling language;

84 1826

I do not think that Satan himself could frame a more puzzling, or a more whimsical one.
Turn as I will, I meet with difficulties - I find them in orthography, Etymology, Syntax and Prosody - - However, my Teacher gives me confidence. - He says, that if I have difficulties , I also have facilities. - That many have made near advances to perfection in the English tongue; and that the greatest glory is acquired by overcoming the greatest difficulties. - Hence I conceive hopes - My expectations are raised - and at a future date, I hope my progress will be such as to enable me


to express myself with ease and elegance. In the meantime, the limited opportunities that have offered, and the little practice which I have had, will, I trust, entitle me to a claim to your indulgence.
Spoken by Dominick Bouligny at our minor exhibition before a respectable audience, and performed well - He is from Louisiana, & the French is his native tongue - only commenced English in the preparatory class (which I teach) a few weeks ago. Was much praised by all - Ap. 11. 1826.

86 Weevil.

Mr Francis Callahan a very near neighbour to our College, informed me yesterday, (May 4.^1826^) that he sowed his garden last year with wheat ñ that having cut it he set up his sheaves in the field without stacking or shocking them. He put the sheaves in 4 bunches. In 12 or 14 days he threshed his wheat and found it quite free from wea^e^vil ñ His wheat grew within 3 or 400 yards of the College wheat lots. The college wheat was so far injured by the weevil last year, that they gave it to the horses. The College wheat was first put up into little stacks in the field, then hauled & put into a close bulk in the barn. The barn being

87 (1826) Fourth of July.

a framed building is much exposed to the sun & heated by it to a great degree. From these circumstances a regular degree of heat was preserved in the barn ñ Hence weevil. Mr Callahan's wheat was exposed to the sun, but it has constant air & the chilling dews of the night ñ Hence no weevil. This is a continued proof of what I have advanced respecting ^the^ weevil, beginning at page 19 of this number ó

(4th July)

As man is the noblest work of God's Creation, so is he the object of his Creator's love. Man is destined to enjoy a nobler and better world; and therefore his Creator bestows on him innumerable blessings, in order that he, by making

88 Fourth of July (1826)

a proper use of them, may attain the end of his Creation. All nature is alive with the providence of God: Every plant teems with ^the^ bounty of Heaven. But amongst all ^the^ blessings that man enjoys, there is none more precious than the sacred boon of Liberty. It is this that cements Societies, endears man to man and renders him grateful to his kind Benefactor. This blessing is the dearer to us from the consideration of our unworthiness; for since man, by a shameful prevarication, has subjected himself to the sway of Satan, he can have no just title to so great a favour. +

+ Properly speaking there is no such thing as Liberty in the wide sense in which many are willing to take it. No sooner was man created than he was commanded to obey ñ How then can he look for liberty since his fall?

89 Fourth of July. (1826)

I consider Liberty in a twofold light, civil and religious. We enjoy it in the first, when we find ourselves free from the iron grasp of tyrrannic sway: in the second, when every man can regulate his conscience according to the dictates of reason and the rules of the Christian faith. Both united form a Government which is congenial to the nature of man, supplies his every want and is suited to all his reasonable purposes. Such is the Government under which kind Providence has placed us and rendered us ^ under whose protection we are perhaps, in a civil ?? point of view, are become ^ the happiest people on the Globe. Here we breathe the sweet air of Liberty, and every man can sit under his own vine & under his own fig tree and smile at the frowns of Tyrants.
I do not aim at royalty ñ I respect majesty; and tho' there may at

90 (1826) Fourth of July.

present be some petty instances of domineering rule in certain corners of Europe, which may have grown out of existing ^ circumstances^ that are often beyond the control of human exertion; yet, Europe at the present day is blessed generally with good and gracious Sovereigns, who labour to render their subjects happy, by guaranteeing to them the rights and the priviledges of free Citizens. I speak of Tyrants and only Tyrants, who in certain ages of the world have risen up and disturbed the peace and marred the happiness of the human race.
But is it true that we have no Tyrants here? ñ None ñ Then what mean the laws? Does not Government require obedience to her dictates? ñ Nay ñ Does she not require even blind obedience? Look

91 Fourth of July (1826)

at the discipline enforced in our navies, the rigid subordination preached up in our Armies, and the galling yoke which is riveted to the necks of the African race ñ What is tyranny, if this is not?
These examples of discipline I must own, seem to confine our Liberty within the bounds of a contracted sphere, and in the opinion of some wise moderns, they are so many instances of oppression and tyranny. But we are taught by reason, that self preservation is the first law in nature, & that hence our Government has a right to guard against the dangers of anarchy and self destruction ñ I would say more ñ I would say, that not only nature, but reason and the voice of the nation call upon Government to ward off these appalling evils! Destroy discipline, and our political system

92 Fourth of July (1826)

will be endangered: banish the laws and Liberty will be unhinged let loose the reigns to unbounded and licentious freedom, and anarchy, and bloodshed and destruction must ensue; for reasonable and well-founded liberty can never stand, without laws and Rulers to support it.
The introduction of slavery was not the work of our Government ñ It was done by a foreign land, and the evil is now so fastened upon us, that we know not how to get rid of it.
Man is impatient of control ñ he is a restless being. When trammelled by the fetters of tyranny, he is unhappy ñ he struggles to be free. When he has long dwelt in the sunshine of peace & prosperity, he at length grows weary of his condition, he still craves something more; he is not content with reasonable and Christian liberty; he stretches forward and grasps at

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that which is criminal & licentious. This spirit of insubordination is pernicious in a high degree: it disturbs the repose of the good, warps the minds of the ignorant, corrupts the principles of the rising generation, leads to civil dissentions & paves the way to ruin.
We ought to be grateful for the blessings we enjoy ñ By testifying our gratitude to Heaven, we shall deserve a continuance of these favours. Perhaps our thanks cannot be better expressed, than by supporting firm principles ñ principles of honour and rectitude ñ principles of due subordination to the ruling powers. By doing so, we shall ward off the dangers of Anarchy, and secure

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the blessings of Liberty, Independence & national happiness.